Free Software, Free Society!
Thoughts of the FSFE Community (English)

Saturday, 12 October 2019

Spotify is Defective by Design

I never used Spotify, since it contains DRM. Instead I still buy DRM-free CDs.
Most of my audio collection is stored in free formats such as FLAC and Ogg Vorbis,
or Red Book in the case of CDs, everything can be played by free players such as
VLC or mpd.

Spotify, which uses a central server, also spies on the listener. Everytime you
listen a song, Spotify knows which song you have listened and when and where.
By contrast free embedded operating systems such as Rockbox do not phone home.
CDs can be baught anonymously and ripped using free software, there is no need
for an internet commection.

Defective by Design recommends the book “Spotify Teardown” which I haven’t read
yet. The book is an innovative investigation of the inner workings of Spotify that
traces the transformation of audio files into streamed experience.

Tuesday, 08 October 2019

2 years since Catalan Independence Referendum, an update

Note 1: This is not KDE or Free Software related, if you're not interested, stop reading, no one is forcing you to read
Note 2: Yes, this is still going to Planet KDE, KDE friends and colleagues ask me about it almost every time we met, so there's definitely interest
Note 3: You're more than welcome to comment, but remember this blog is my house, so don't complain when i don't tolerate stuff i wouldn't tolerate at my home

You may remember Catalonia held an Independence referendum 2 years ago, lots of things have happened since then, I'm going to try to summarize, if you're interested in my initial reaction read my blog from that very same day.

On October 27 2017, following the referendum results, the Parliament of Catalonia declared Independence by a majority of 70 out of 135 MPs. That was mostly ignored by every single country in the world. A few hours later the Spanish government used bigger-army-diplomacy (AKA article 155 of Spanish Constitution) to decide that the Parliament of Catalonia would be suspended and new elections would happen in Catalonia on December 21.

On November 2nd 2017, a judge put most of the Catalan government in jail with the charges of "you've been terribly bad".

They still remain in jail awaiting for trial results (trial finished a few months ago).

Notable exceptions of government officials not in jail are president Carles Puigdemont and Ministers Clara PonsatĂ­ and Toni ComĂ­n, that exiled themselves to other European countries. Spain has tried several times to get European countries to extradite them to Spain because "they've been terribly bad", but that has failed every single time, so they ended up revoking the extradition requests.

Elections happened on December 21 2017, and to shocking surprise of no one, almost virtually the same results happened if you count the pro-independence vs anti-independence blocks.

Since then the Catalan pro-independence government has been basically very low-key in their actions.

Meanwhile, Spain had a its own elections in April this year. They did this nice thing of letting the jailed (but still not sentenced to anything, so innocent) Catalan politicians run, and several of them won Congress seats. Then they said "oh but you know, you're a very dangerous person, so we're not going to let you attend Congress sessions". Not that it matters now, since Spain is unable to govern itself and is having it's 4th election in 4 years this November.

We also had elections in the European Union, and you know what? The same happened! They let catalan-jailed politicians run but then they decided they would not let them take the seats. Actually, this time is even worse since Carles Puigdemont and Toni ComĂ­n, that are living in Brussels without any extradition petition (i.e. they're basically free citizens of Europe), have also been rejected from taking their seats for some esoteric reason.

As a "fun fact", in late 2018 some Spanish regions had elections. Andalucia was one of them and the current government is a coalition of PP+C+VOX, i.e. right wing conservatives, right wing liberals and ultra right wing nut-jobs. One of their first decisions was to put away 100000 euros for grants to teach Spanish to Spanish born people (not for helping immigrants, they're right wing crazies after all) living in Catalonia that don't know how speak Spanish. I'm 99.99% sure the number of people that matches that description is very close to 0 people. You heard well, the poorest region of Spain decided to subsidize the 4th richest region for something that is virtually useless. Thanks!

Much less "fun fact", last week Monday, the Spanish police decided to detain 9 pro-independence people (later to be 7 since 2 were let go) with terrorism charges. The investigation is on-going and technically it should be secret, but we've seen pictures all over the news of what the cops say to be material to make bombs, and all i can see is a pressure cooking pot and some fireworks used typically for Ball de diables.

I don't want to 100% rule out this people having actual plans to do something nasty, but Spanish police/judges/state history of just fabricating charges against people they don't like is so long (An anarchist recently spent *18* months in jail awaiting trial for tweeting stuff "Goku lives, the fight continues" to be then just found innocent after trial) that i would not be surprised either if this is just Spain doing bigger-army-diplomacy again.

TL;DR: Everything is fucked up and I can't really see a way out at this point.

Monday, 07 October 2019

Linux App Summit 2019 schedule is out!

We published the Linux App Summit 2019 schedule last week.

We have a bunch of interesting talks (sadly we had to leave almost 40 almost as interesting talks out, we had lots of awesome submissions!) ranging from flatpak and snaps to how product management is good for Free Software projects with some thought provoking talks thrown in to make us think what's the future of our platform.

I am going and you should totally come too!

The attendance is free but please register at https://events.linuxappsummit.org/


Better Work Together

Do you want to work on stuff that matters? Since 2010 a group of people in Wellington, New Zealand have been organizing themselves to do just that. Now you can read how they did it!

Their organization is called Enspiral and stories about their amazing journey so far has been documented in the cleverly titled book “Better Work Together“. I have been following Enspiral for years and pretty much devoured the book. It was such a joy to read the personal stories and I am inspired to explore “reinventing Enspiral” (as they call it) here in The Netherlands.

Please go read the book! For free! It is shared under a Creative Commons license, so here is a link to a free and gratis download of the book Better Work Together. Of course, do give some of your money to support the authors if you like what you read.

However, you are probaly super-busy and do not have time to read all the books in the world. So, to help you a bit there the rest of this post is “Better Work Together in Quotes”: a selection of the quotes that resonated a lot with me and that give you an idea of what Enspiral and the book are all about.

If these quotes resonate with you as well, I recommend you to pick up the book and invite you to contact me to see if we can exchange ideas or even join forces to jointly work (more) on stuff that truly matters to us!

Here come the quotes, boldface added to the ones that especially stand out to me:

“Solidarity is not the result of world-changingly good ideas, it is the cause.”

“The work itself – the process of collaboration – ends up as important as whatever product or service is being delivered.”

“If you are sincere in your desire to make the world a better place then your personal success is our number one priority.”

“Thank you for your attention”

– As a species we have never been so powerful.
– With this power we’re changing things.
– We are reaching limits we haven’t encountered before.
– We have the potential (and the urgent need) to change everything.
– What do we do?
– Where do we start?

“Our attention is our power. It is the invisible, constant force that ultimately determines our individual and collective potential.”

“I don’t care what you work on, whether it’s climate change, global poverty, self management, social enterprise, planting trees, gender equality, decolonisation, or steady state economics. If your primary mission is to make the world a better place, your personal success is the reason Enspiral exists.”

“There is a trickle of human energy going into the most important issues of our times. Enspiral exists to help turn that trickle into a river.”

“We organise differently: No one should lead all the time and everyone should lead some of the time.”

“Get paid well to do work you love, with people
you love, while working on a systemic issue you care deeply about.”

“It isn’t easy, but it is possible.”

“The only way to understand Enspiral is to listen to many peo-
ple, which is why many of us are contributing to this book.”

“Either they were working full time on something that wasn’t aligned with their purpose or they were struggling financially as they put all their energy into volunteering.”

“It occurred to me that maybe the best way I could contribute was to help people who wanted to change the world get highly paid contract work.”

“A culture of experimentation”

Managing the cost of failure:
– Respect the status quo
– Copy patterns that work
– Start small
– Let things settle
– Deliver value early

“Distributing leadership”

“We got by, but we never managed to achieve abundance.”

“The dream lives on, continually emerging.”

“We discover the path by walking it together.”

“We tend to follow that paths we can see.”

“Enspiral is agnostic about individual purpose, supporting anyone to do meaningful work – or ‘stuff that matters’ – no matter how they define it. There is no adherence to dogma about specific ways to change the world, other than to help one another.”

“We value the person over the product, the flowering and unfolding of the person over profit. And we’ve created a place where these are not mutually exclusive.”

“Capitalism bombards us with messages of unworthiness and pejorative definitions of success and advertising manipulates our will. Even if we are aware of this, it’s not easy to articulate an alternative story.”


Saturday, 28 September 2019

CentOS 8 NetInstall

a few days ago CentOS-8 (1905) was released and you can find details here ReleaseNotes

Below is a visual guide on how to net-install centos8 1905

notes on a qemu-kvm

Boot

01centos81905.png

Select Language

02centos81905.png

Menu

I have marked the next screens. For netinstall you need to setup first network

03centos81905.png

Time

04centos81905.png

Network

05centos81905.png

Disable kdump

06centos81905.png

Add Repo

ftp.otenet.gr/linux/centos/8/BaseOS/x86_64/os/

07centos81905.png

Server Installation

08centos81905.png
Disk

09centos81905.png

Review

10centos81905.png

Begin Installation

11centos81905.png

Root

12centos81905.png

User

Make this user administrator

13centos81905.png

Installation

14centos81905.png
15centos81905.png

Reboot

16centos81905.png

Grub

17centos81905.png

Boot

18centos81905.png

CentOS-8 (1905)

19centos81905.png

Tag(s): centos8

Thursday, 26 September 2019

Using template file with terraform

When using tf most of times you need to reuse your Infrastructure as Code, and so your code should be written in such way. In my (very simple) use-case, I need to reuse user-data for cloud-init to setup different VMs but I do not want to rewrite basic/common things every time. Luckily, we can use the template_file.

user-data.yml

In the below yaml file, you will see that we are using tf string-template to produce hostname with this variable:

"${hostname}"

here is the file:

#cloud-config

disable_root: true
ssh_pwauth: no

users:
  - name: ebal
    ssh_import_id:
      - gh:ebal
    shell: /bin/bash
    sudo: ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL

# Set TimeZone
timezone: Europe/Athens

hostname: "${hostname}"

# Install packages
packages:
  - mlocate
  - figlet

# Update/Upgrade & Reboot if necessary
package_update: true
package_upgrade: true
package_reboot_if_required: true

# Remove cloud-init
runcmd:
  - figlet "${hostname}" > /etc/motd
  - updatedb

Variables

Let’s see our tf variables:

$ cat Variables.tf
variable "hcloud_token" {
    description = "Hetzner Access API token"
    default = ""
}
variable "gandi_api_token" {
    description = "Gandi API token"
    default = ""
}
variable "domain" {
    description = " The domain name "
    default = "example.org"
}

Terraform Template

So we need to use user-data.yml as a template and replace hostname with var.domain

$ cat example.tf

Two simple steps:

  • First we read user-data.yml as template and replace hostname with var.domain
  • Then we render the template result to user_data as string
provider "hcloud" {
  token = "${var.hcloud_token}"
}

data "template_file" "userdata" {
  template = "${file("user-data.yml")}"
  vars = {
    hostname  = "${var.domain}"
  }
}

resource "hcloud_server" "node1" {
  name = "node1"
  image = "ubuntu-18.04"
  server_type = "cx11"
  user_data = "${data.template_file.userdata.rendered}"
}
$ terraform version
Terraform v0.12.3

And that’s it !

Tag(s): terraform

Sunday, 22 September 2019

Akademy 2019




It's 10 days already since Akademy 2019 finished and I'm already missing it :/

Akademy is a week-long action-packed conference, talks, BoFs, daytrip, dinner with old and new friends, it's all a great combination and shows how amazing KDE (yes, the community, that's our name) is.

On the talks side i missed some that i wanted to attend because i had to extend my time at the registration booth helping fellow KDE people that had forgotten to register (yes, our setup could be a bit easier, doesn't help that you have to register for talks, for travel support and for the actual conference in three different places), but I am not complaining, you get to interact with lots of people in the registration desk, it's a good way to meet people you may not have met otherwise, so please make sure you volunteer next year ;)

One of the talks i want to highlight is Dan VrĂĄtil's talk about C++, I agree with him that we could do much better in making our APIs more expressive using the power of "modern" C++ (when do we stop it calling modern?). It's a pity that the slides are not up so you'll have to live with KĂŠvin Ottens sketch of it for now.



My talk was sadly not very well attended since i was sharing time with the more interesting talk by Marco and Bhushan about Plasma in embedded devices (i would have gone there if it wasn't because i had a talk) so if you're interested in fuzzing please read my slides and give me a shout if you want to volunteer to help us fuzz all the things!

On the BoFs side one of the hardest but most interesting we had was the one about KDE Applications (the N things we release monthly in one go) vs KDE applications (all applications made by us), and i think we may be on the right track there, there's a plan, needs finishing out, but I'm confident it may actually work :)

One of the things that shows how amazing this conference is and how many interesting things are happening is the fact that i made a small list of bugs i wanted to work on if i ever got bored of the talks or the BoFs, i don't think i even started on any of them ^_^

Akademy 2020

Akademy is a core event for KDE and we need to find people to help us organising it every year. If you think you can help, please have a look at the call for hosts document.

Thanks

I would like to thank the UnixMiB friends for hosting us, i know it's lots of work and i hope you know we all very much appreciate the effort you put in.

I would like to thank the Akademy-team on KDE's side too, you are amazing and pull out great work year after year, keep it up!

I would like to thank the KDE e.V. for partially sponsoring my attendance to Akademy, please donate to KDE if you think the work done at Akademy is important.

Friday, 20 September 2019

Partition MisAlignment

this article also has an alternative title:

How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Loved my Team

This is a story of troubleshooting cloud disk volumes (long post).

Cloud Disk Volume

Working with data disk volumes in the cloud have a few benefits. One of them is when the volume runs out of space, you can just increase it! No need of replacing the disk, no need of buying a new one, no need of transferring 1TB of data from one disk to another. It is a very simple matter.

Partitions Vs Disks

My personal opinion is not to use partitions. Cloud data disk on EVS (elastic volume service) or cloud volumes for short, they do not need a partition table. You can use the entire disk for data.

Use: /dev/vdb instead of /dev/vdb1

Filesystem

You have to choose your filesystem carefully. You can use XFS that supports Online resizing via xfs_growfs, but you can not shrunk them. But I understand that most of us are used to work with extended filesystem ext4 and to be honest I also feel more comfortable with ext4.

You can read the below extensive article in wikipedia Comparison of file systems for more info, and you can search online regarding performance between xfs and ext4. There are really close to each other nowadays.

Increase Disk

Today, working on a simple operational task (increase a cloud disk volume), I followed the official documentation. This is something that I have done in the past like a million times. To provide a proper documentation I will use redhat’s examples:

In a nutshell

  • Umount data disk
  • Increase disk volume within the cloud dashboard
  • Extend (change) the geometry
  • Check filesystem
  • Resize ext4 filesystem
  • Mount data disk

Commands

Let’s present the commands for reference:

# umount /dev/vdb1

[increase cloud disk volume]

# partprobe

# fdisk /dev/vdb
[delete partition]
[create partition]

# partprobe

# e2fsck /dev/vdb1
# e2fsck -f /dev/vdb1
# resize2fs /dev/vdb1
# mount /dev/vdb1

And here is fdisk in more detail:

Fdisk

# fdisk /dev/vdb

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.27.1).
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.

Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/vdb: 1.4 TiB, 1503238553600 bytes, 2936012800 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0004e2c8

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1           1 2097151999 2097151999 1000G 83 Linux

Delete


Command (m for help): d
Selected partition 1
Partition 1 has been deleted.

Create

Command (m for help): n
Partition type
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   e   extended (container for logical partitions)
Select (default p): p
Partition number (1-4, default 1):
First sector (2048-2936012799, default 2048):
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (2048-2936012799, default 2936012799):

Created a new partition 1 of type 'Linux' and of size 1.4 TiB.

Print

Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/vdb: 1.4 TiB, 1503238553600 bytes, 2936012800 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0004e2c8

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1        2048 2936012799 2936010752  1.4T 83 Linux

Write

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

File system consistency check

An interesting error occurred, something that I had never seen before when using e2fsck

# e2fsck /dev/vdb1
e2fsck 1.42.13 (17-May-2015)
ext2fs_open2: Bad magic number in super-block
e2fsck: Superblock invalid, trying backup blocks...
e2fsck: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/vdb1

The superblock could not be read or does not describe a valid ext2/ext3/ext4
filesystem.  If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2/ext3/ext4
filesystem (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock
is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock:
    e2fsck -b 8193 <device>
 or
    e2fsck -b 32768 <device>

Superblock invalid, trying backup blocks

Panic

I think I lost 1 TB of files!

At that point, I informed my team to raise awareness.

partition_panic.png

Yes I know, I was a bit sad at the moment. I’ve done this work a million times before, also the Impostor Syndrome kicked in!

Snapshot

I was lucky enough because I could create a snapshot, de-attach the disk from the VM, create a new disk from the snapshot and work on the new (test) disk to try recovering 1TB of lost files!

Make File System

mke2fs has a dry-run option that will show us the superblocks:

mke2fs 1.42.13 (17-May-2015)
Creating filesystem with 367001344 4k blocks and 91750400 inodes
Filesystem UUID: f130f422-2ad7-4f36-a6cb-6984da34ead1
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872, 71663616, 78675968,
        102400000, 214990848

Testing super blocks

so I created a small script to test every super block against /dev/vdb1

e2fsck  -b  32768      /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  98304      /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  163840     /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  229376     /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  294912     /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  819200     /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  884736     /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  1605632    /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  2654208    /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  4096000    /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  7962624    /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  11239424   /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  20480000   /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  23887872   /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  71663616   /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  78675968   /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  102400000  /dev/vdb1
e2fsck  -b  214990848  /dev/vdb1

Unfortunalyt none of the above commands worked!

last-ditch recovery method

There is a nuclear option DO NOT DO IT

mke2fs -S /dev/vdb1

Write superblock and group descriptors only. This is useful if all of the superblock and backup superblocks are corrupted, and a last-ditch recovery method is desired. It causes mke2fs to reinitialize the superblock and group descriptors, while not touching the inode table and the block and inode bitmaps.

Then e2fsck -y -f /dev/vdb1 moved 1TB of files under lost+found with their inode as the name of every file.

I cannot stress this enough: DO NOT DO IT !

Misalignment

So what is the issue?

See the difference of fdisk on 1TB and 1.4TB

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1           1 2097151999 2097151999 1000G 83 Linux

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1        2048 2936012799 2936010752  1.4T 83 Linux

The First sector is now at 2048 instead of 1.

Okay delete disk, create a new one from the snapshot and try again.

Fdisk Part Two

Now it is time to manually put the first sector on 1.

# fdisk /dev/vdb

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.27.1).
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/vdb: 1.4 TiB, 1503238553600 bytes, 2936012800 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0004e2c8

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1        2048 2936012799 2936010752  1.4T 83 Linux

Command (m for help): d
Selected partition 1
Partition 1 has been deleted.

Command (m for help): n
Partition type
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   e   extended (container for logical partitions)
Select (default p): p
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 1
First sector (2048-2936012799, default 2048): 1
Value out of range.

Value out of range.

damn it!

sfdisk

In our SRE team, we use something like a Bat-Signal to ask for All hands on a problem and that was what we were doing. A colleague made a point that fdisk is not the best tool for the job, but we should use sfdisk instead. I actually use sfdisk to create backups and restore partition tables but I was trying not to deviate from the documentation and I was not sure that everybody knew how to use sfdisk.

So another colleague suggested to use a similar 1TB disk from another VM.
I could hear the gears in my mind working…

sfdisk export partition table

sfdisk -d /dev/vdb > vdb.out

# fdisk -l /dev/vdb
Disk /dev/vdb: 1000 GiB, 1073741824000 bytes, 2097152000 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0009e732

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1           1 2097151999 2097151999 1000G 83 Linux

# sfdisk -d /dev/vdb > vdb.out

# cat vdb.out
label: dos
label-id: 0x0009e732
device: /dev/vdb
unit: sectors

/dev/vdb1 : start=           1, size=  2097151999, type=83

okay we have something here to work with, start sector is 1 and the geometry is 1TB for an ext file system. Identically to the initial partition table (before using fdisk).

sfdisk restore partition table

sfdisk /dev/vdb < vdb.out

# sfdisk /dev/vdb < vdb.out

Checking that no-one is using this disk right now ... OK

Disk /dev/vdb: 1.4 TiB, 1503238553600 bytes, 2936012800 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0004e2c8

Old situation:

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1        2048 2936012799 2936010752  1.4T 83 Linux

>>> Script header accepted.
>>> Script header accepted.
>>> Script header accepted.
>>> Script header accepted.
>>> Created a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x0009e732.
Created a new partition 1 of type 'Linux' and of size 1000 GiB.
/dev/vdb2:
New situation:

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1           1 2097151999 2097151999 1000G 83 Linux

The partition table has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

# fdisk -l /dev/vdb
Disk /dev/vdb: 1.4 TiB, 1503238553600 bytes, 2936012800 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0009e732

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1           1 2097151999 2097151999 1000G 83 Linux

Filesystem Check ?

# e2fsck -f /dev/vdb1
e2fsck 1.42.13 (17-May-2015)
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
SATADISK: 766227/65536000 files (1.9% non-contiguous), 200102796/262143999 blocks

f#ck YES

Mount ?

# mount /dev/vdb1 /mnt

# df -h /mnt
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/vdb1       985G  748G  187G  81% /mnt

f3ck Yeah !!

Extend geometry

It is time to extend the partition geometry to 1.4TB with sfdisk.
If you remember from the fdisk output

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1           1 2097151999 2097151999 1000G 83 Linux
/dev/vdb1        2048 2936012799 2936010752  1.4T 83 Linux

We have 2936010752 sectors in total.
The End sector of 1.4T is 2936012799
Simple math problem: End Sector - Sectors = 2936012799 - 2936010752 = 2047

The previous fdisk command, had the Start Sector at 2048,
So 2048 - 2047 = 1 the preferable Start Sector!

New sfdisk

By editing the text vdb.out file to re-present our new situation:

# diff vdb.out vdb.out.14
6c6
< /dev/vdb1 : start=           1, size=  2097151999, type=83
---
> /dev/vdb1 : start=           1, size=  2936010752, type=83

1.4TB

Let’s put everything together

# sfdisk /dev/vdb < vdb.out.14
Checking that no-one is using this disk right now ... OK

Disk /dev/vdb: 1.4 TiB, 1503238553600 bytes, 2936012800 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0009e732

Old situation:

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1           1 2097151999 2097151999 1000G 83 Linux

>>> Script header accepted.
>>> Script header accepted.
>>> Script header accepted.
>>> Script header accepted.
>>> Created a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x0009e732.
Created a new partition 1 of type 'Linux' and of size 1.4 TiB.
/dev/vdb2:
New situation:

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/vdb1           1 2936010752 2936010752  1.4T 83 Linux

The partition table has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

# e2fsck /dev/vdb1
e2fsck 1.42.13 (17-May-2015)
SATADISK: clean, 766227/65536000 files, 200102796/262143999 blocks

# e2fsck -f /dev/vdb1
e2fsck 1.42.13 (17-May-2015)
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
SATADISK: 766227/65536000 files (1.9% non-contiguous), 200102796/262143999 blocks

# resize2fs /dev/vdb1
resize2fs 1.42.13 (17-May-2015)
Resizing the filesystem on /dev/vdb1 to 367001344 (4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/vdb1 is now 367001344 (4k) blocks long.

# mount /dev/vdb1 /mnt

# df -h  /mnt
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/vdb1       1.4T  748G  561G  58%  /mnt

Finally!!

Partition Alignment

By the way, you can read this amazing article to fully understand why this happened:

Partition Alignment

Tuesday, 17 September 2019

Thoughts on GNU and Richard Stallman

  • Rekado
  • 12:05, Tuesday, 17 September 2019

Richard Stallman has resigned as president and from the board of directors of the Free Software Foundation. I welcome this decision.

As a co-maintainer of GNU packages (including Guix, the Guix Workflow Language, the Guile Picture Language, etc), and as a contributor to various other GNU software, I would like to state that while I'm grateful for Richard Stallman's founding of the GNU project and his past contributions to GNU, it would be wrong to continue to remain silent on the negative effects his behaviour and words have had over the past years. His actions have hurt people and alienated them from the free software movement.

When I joined GNU I used to think of Richard as just a bit of a quirky person with odd habits, with a passion for nitpicking and clear language, but also with a vision of freeing people from oppression at the hands of a boring dystopia mediated by computers. Good intentions, however, aren't enough. Richard's actions over the past years sadly have been detrimental to achieving the vision that he outlined in the GNU Manifesto, to benefit all computer users.

GNU's not Unix, but Richard ain't GNU either (RAGE?). GNU is bigger than any one person, even its founder. I'm still convinced that GNU has an important role to play towards providing a harmonized, trustworthy, freedom-respecting operating system environment that benefits all computer users. I call upon other maintainers of GNU software to embrace the responsibilities that working on a social project such as GNU brings. The GNU Manifesto states that "GNU serves as an example to inspire and a banner to rally others to join us in sharing". Let us do that by welcoming people of all backgrounds into GNU and by working hard to provide a healthy environment for fruitful collaboration.

Monday, 09 September 2019

Spoofing commits to repositories on GitHub

The following has already been reported to GitHub via HackerOne. Someone from GitHub has closed the report as “informative” but told me that it’s a known low-risk issue. As such, while they haven’t explicitly said so, I figure they don’t mind me blogging about it.

Check out this commit in torvalds’ linux.git on GitHub. In case this is fixed, here’s a screenshot of what I see when I look at this link:

GitHub page showing a commit in torvalds/linux with the commit message add super evil code

How did this get past review? It didn’t. You can spoof commits in any repo on GitHub due to the way they handle forks of repositories internally. Instead of copying repositories when forks occur, the objects in the git repository are shared and only the refs are stored per-repository. (GitHub tell me that private repositories are handled differently to avoid private objects leaking out this way. I didn’t verify this but I have no reason to suspect it is not true.)

To reproduce this:

  1. Fork a repository
  2. Push a commit to your fork
  3. Put your commit ref on the end of:
https://github.com/[parent]/[repo]/commit/

That’s all there is to it. You can also add .diff or .patch to the end of the URL and those URLs work too, in the namespace of the parent.

The situation that worries me relates to distribution packaging. Debian has a policy that deltas to packages in the stable repository should be as small as possible, targetting fixes by backporting patches from newer releases.

If you get a bug report on your Debian package with a link to a commit on GitHub, you had better double check that this commit really did come from the upstream author and hasn’t been spoofed in this way. Even if it shows it was authored by the upstream’s GitHub account or email address, this still isn’t proof because this is easily spoofed in git too.

The best defence against being caught out by this is probably signed commits, but if the upstream is not doing that, you can clone the repository from GitHub and check to see that the commit is on a branch that exists in the upstream repository. If the commit is in another fork, the upstream repo won’t have a ref for a branch that contains that commit.

Tuesday, 27 August 2019

FSFE booth on Veganmania Donauinsel 2019

Veganmania Donauinsel 2019
FSFE Information stall on Veganmania Donauinsel 2019

Once more free software activists from Vienna used the opportunity of the local vegan summer festival to inform about the possibility to increase our independence on computers and mobile devices. It was the second such event in Vienna this year. But unlike the first which was directly in the city center with loads of passers by this street festival took place in Viennas big recreation area on the island in the Danube river. It is rather close to the city center also and therefore many local people visit it in their spare time. The organisers estimated 9000 visitors per day.

The FSFE booth was manned there all the time from Saturday between 12:00 and 21:00 and Sunday from 10:00 to 19:00. It had a great spot far enough away from the stage with live music in order to allow undisturbed conversations and still close enough to the other 90 stalls with drinks, food, merchantise and a variety of stalls on other subjects like animal welfare, veganism sustainability, shelters and environmental protection.

Since it was an outdoor event on a meadow and because we don’t own a tent we couldn’t hang-up our posters. We just used our umbrella to not be exposed directly to the strong summer sun. And we had huge luck with the weather. Shortly after the festival was closed down on Saturday heavy rain started and it lasted until shortly before the event started again the next day.

Over the years we have collected a few regulars on our information stalls who normally drop by but again mostly totally new people frequented our FSFE information desk. Many of them had no prior knowledge what free software is about. Most of the time we were engaged in conversations with interested people and many explicitly thanked us for being there. We frequently explained why we man an FSFE information stall on a vegan summer festival: If you use the same ethical considerations that lead people to adopt a vegan life style in information technology you end up with free software.

A researcher explicitly came from an other county to the city because he wanted to visit our FSFE stall and talk to us about social implications of free software.

This weekend was an other very successful FSFE stall and we look forward to the next opportunity to man our information desk. We might even try to have stalls on other public events in the future which feature NGO information desks. At least if the fees are not unreasonably high.

Monday, 26 August 2019

Open Source is more than licenses

A few weeks ago I was honored to deliver the keynote of the Open Source Awards in Edinburgh. I decided to talk about a subject that I wanted to talk about for quite some time but never found the right opportunity for. There is no video recording of my talk but several people asked me for a summary. So I decided to use some spare time in a plane to summarize it in a blog post.

I started to use computers and write software in the early 80s when I was 10 years old. This was also the time when Richard Stallman wrote the 4 freedoms, started the GNU project, founded the FSF and created the GPL. His idea was that users and developers should be in control of the computer they own which requires Free Software. At the time the computing experience was only the personal computer in front of you and the hopefully Free and Open Source software running on it.

The equation was (Personal Hardware) + (Free Software) = (Digital Freedom)

In the meantime the IT world has changed and evolved a lot. Now we have ubiquitous internet access, computer in cars, TVs, watches and other IoT devices. We have the full mobile revolution. We have cloud computing where the data storage and compute are distributed over different data centers owned and controlled by different people and organizations all over the world. We have strong software patents, DRM, code signing and other crypto, software as a service, more closed hardware, social networking and the power of the network effect.

Overall the world has changed a lot since the 80s. Most of the Open Source and Free Software community still focuses mainly on software licenses. I’m asking myself if we are not missing the bigger picture by limiting the Free Software and Open Source movement to licensing questions only.

Richard Stallman wanted to be in control of his computer. Let’s go through some of the current big questions regarding control in IT and let’s see how we are doing:

Facebook

Facebook is lately under a lot of attack for countless violations of user privacy, being involved in election meddling, triggering a genocide in Myanmar, threatening democracy and many other things. Let’s see if Free Software would solve this problem:

If Facebook would release all the code tomorrow as Free and Open Source software our community would be super happy. WE have won. But would it really solve any problems? I can’t run Facebook on my own computer because I don’t have a Facebook server cluster. And even if I could it would be very lonely there because I would be the only user. So Free Software is important and great but actually doesn’t give users and freedom or control in the Facebook case. More is needed than Free Software licenses.

Microsoft

I hear from a lot of people in the Free and Open Source community that Microsoft is good now. They changed under the latest CEO and are no longer the evil empire. They now ship a Linux kernel in Windows 10 and provide a lot of Free and Open Source tools in their Linux containers in the Azure Cloud. I think it’s definitely a nice step in the right direction but their Cloud solutions still have the strongest vendor lock-in, Windows 10 is not free in price nor gives you freedom. In fact they don’t have an Open Source business model anywhere. They just USE Linux and Open Source. So the fact that more software in the Microsoft ecosystem is now available under Free Software licenses doesn’t give any more freedom to the users.

Machine Learning

Machine Learning is an important new technology that can be used for many thing from picture recognition to voice recognition to self driving cars. The interesting thing is that the hardware and the software alone are useless. What is also needed for a working machine learning system are the data to train the neural network. This training data is often the secret ingredient which is super valuable. So if Tesla would release all their software tomorrow as Free Software and you would buy a Tesla to have access to the hardware than you are still unable to study, build and improve the self driving car functionality. You would need the millions of hours of video recording and driver data to make your neural network useful. So Free software alone is not enough to give users control

5G

There is a lot of discussions in the western world if 5G infrastructure can be trusted. Do we know if there are back doors in cell towers if they are bought from Huawei or other Chinese companies? The Free and Open Source community answers that the software should be licenses under a Free Software license and then all is good. But can we actually check if the software running on the infrastructure is the same we have as source code? For that we would need reproducible builds, access to all the code signing and encryption keys and the infrastructure should fetch new software updates from our update server and not the one provided by the manufacturer. So the software license is important but doesn’t give you the full control and freedom.

Android

Android is a very popular mobile OS in the Free Software community. The reason is that it’s released under a Free Software license. I know a lot of Free Software activists who run a custom build of Android on their phone and only install Free Software from app stores like F-Droid. Unfortunately 99% of normal users out there don’t get these freedoms because their phones can’t be unlocked, or they lack the technical knowledge how to do it or they rely on software that is only available in the Google PlayStore. Users are trapped in the classic vendor lock-in. So the fact that the Android core is Free Software actually doesn’t give much freedom to 99% of all its users.

So what is the conclusion?

I think the Open Source and Free Software community who cares about the 4 freedoms of Stallman and being in control of their digital lives and user freedom has to expand their scope. Free Software licenses are needed but are by far not enough anymore to fight for user freedom and to guarantee users are in control of their digital life. The formula (Personal Hardware) + (Free Software) = (Digital Freedom) is not valid anymore. There are more ingredients needed. I hope that the Free Software community can and will reform itself to focus on more topics than licenses alone. The world needs people who fight for digital rights and user freedoms now more than ever.

Saturday, 24 August 2019

Walkthrough Installation of WackoWiki v5.5.12

WackoWiki is the wiki of my choice and one of the first opensource project I’ve ever contributed, and I still use wackowiki for personal use.

A few days ago, wackowiki released version 5.5.12. In this blog post I will try to share my experience on installing wackowiki on a new ubuntu 18.04 LTS.

Ansible Role

I’ve created an example ansible role for the wackowiki for the Requirements section: WackoWiki Ansible Role

Requirements

Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS

apt -y install
       php
       php-common
       php-bcmath
       php-ctype
       php-gd
       php-iconv
       php-json
       php-mbstring
       php-mysql
       apache2
       libapache2-mod-php
       mariadb-server
       unzip

Apache2

We need to enable mod_reqwrite in apache2 but also to add the appropiate configuration in the default conf in VirtualHost

# a2enmod rewrite

# vim /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf

<VirtualHost *:80>
...
    # enable.htaccess
    <Directory /var/www/html/>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
        AllowOverride All
        Require all granted
    </Directory>
...
</VirtualHost>

MySQL

wacko.sql

CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS wacko;
CREATE USER 'wacko'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'YOURNEWPASSWORD';
GRANT  ALL PRIVILEGES ON wacko.* TO 'wacko'@'localhost';
FLUSH  PRIVILEGES;

# mysql < wacko.sql

WackoWiki

curl -sLO https://downloads.sourceforge.net/wackowiki/wacko.r5.5.12.zip
unzip wacko.r5.5.12.zip
mv wacko.r5.5.12/wacko /var/www/html/wacko/
chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/wacko/

Web Installation

01_wackowiki_install_5512.png

02_wackowiki_install_5512.png

03_wackowiki_install_5512.png

04_wackowiki_install_5512.png

05_wackowiki_install_5512.png

06_wackowiki_install_5512.png

07_wackowiki_install_5512.png

08_wackowiki_install_5512.png

09_wackowiki_install_5512.png

10_wackowiki_install_5512.png

Post Install

Last, we need to remove write permission for the wackowiki configuration file and remove setup folder

root@ubuntu:~# chmod -w /var/www/html/wacko/config/config.php
root@ubuntu:~# mv /var/www/html/wacko/setup/ /var/www/html/._setup

11_wackowiki_install_5512.png

WackoWiki

12_wackowiki_install_5512.png

13_wackowiki_install_5512.png

14_wackowiki_install_5512.png

Tag(s): wacko, wiki

Monday, 19 August 2019

Blocking untrusted USB devices

badusb

For fun and security (and a bit of paranoia), I thought I should whitelist my trusted USB devices and block everything else.

USBGuard

We have a couple of tools that can help us with that. USBGuard is the one I found to be the most configurable and well documented.

NOTICE: All commands here require certain privileges. To make commands easier to read, I omitted adding sudo in the beginning. But you probably need to.

Installation

USBGuard should already be packaged for your favorite Linux distribution.

One important thing to consider though is that on Debian (and derivatives) installing a package that comes with a systemd service file ends up being started and enabled by default. That means that if your input devices are USB-connected, you will find yourself locked out of your system. This may include even devices that are not physically plugged in a USB port (eg. your laptop built-in keyboard).

The upstream developer actually has a relevant warning:

WARNING: before you start using usbguard be sure to configure it first unless you know exactly what you are doing (all USB devices will get blocked).

But that didn't stop the Debian developers, who maintain that package, to allow USBGuard daemon to start with zero configuration đŸ¤ˇ

Systemd

You can find more detailed guides on how to prevent this "feature", but for the scope of this post here is what I did.

Systemd comes with a mask feature, that will prevent a certain service from being started. So for instance, if you try this:

sudo systemctl mask nginx.service
sudo systemctl start nginx.service

You'll get this error:

Failed to start nginx.service: Unit nginx.service is masked.

In our case, we can't use the mask command because USBGuard is not installed yet. But what mask actually does is just create a symlink. So all we have to do is create it manually:

sudo ln -s /dev/null /etc/systemd/system/usbguard.service

And now we can safely install USBGuard:

sudo apt install usbguard

Configuration

First thing to do is create an initial policy that whitelists all of our usb devices. Now it's a good time to plug-in devices that you tend to use often and you already trust. You can of course whitelist devices at any point.

usbguard generate-policy

The above command will display the list of your currently plugged devices with an allow keyword in the beginning. Let's save that to USBGuard's configuration file:

usbguard generate-policy > /etc/usbguard/rules.conf

Now it's safe to unmask, start and enable USBGuard daemon:

systemctl unmask usbguard.service
systemctl start usbguard.service
systemctl enable usbguard.service

Testing

To test this actually works try to plug a new device, not whitelisted yet. Let's a simple USB stick. Hopefully it will be blocked. To confirm that:

usbguard list-devices

This lists all your detected devices. The new device you just plugged-in should have a block keyword in the beginning. For a more filtered output:

usbguard list-devices | grep block

You should see something like this:

13: block id 0xxx:0xxx serial <...>

Allowing devices

Now let's say you actually want to unblock this device, because it came from a friend you trust. The command we run above also contained an ID number. The first thing on that line. We can use that and allow that device:

usbguard allow-device 13

Whitelisting devices

Using allow-device doesn't whitelist the device for ever. So let's say you bought a new external disk and you want to whitelist it. USBGuard has an append-rule command. You just need to paste the whole device line starting with an allow keyword.

Plug the device and see the USBGuard output:

usbguard list-devices | grep block

You should see something like this:

21: block id 0xxx:0xxx serial <...>

Copy the whole line starting from id and then use it but prefix it with an allow keyword (mind the single quotes used to wrap the entire rule):

usbguard append-rule 'allow id 0xxx:0xxx serial <...>'

Editing rules

At any point you can see the whitelisted devices:

usbguard list-rules

And you use the id number in the beginning of each line in order to interact with that specific rule. For example to remove a device:

usbguard remove-rule <id>

And remember, there is no such thing as absolute security. It all comes down to your Threat model.


Comments and reactions on Mastodon, Diaspora, Twitter and Lobsters.

Saturday, 17 August 2019

Building Archlinux Packages in Gitlab

GitLab is my favorite online git hosting provider, and I really love the CI feature (that now most of the online project providers are also starting supporting it).

Archlinux uses git and you can find everything here: Arch Linux git repositories

There are almost 2500 packages there! There are 6500 in core/extra/community (primary repos) and almost 55k Packages in AUR, the Archlinux User Repository.

We are going to use git to retrieve our PKGBUILD from aur archlinux as an example.
The same can be done with one of the core packages by using the above git repo.

So here is a very simple .gitlab-ci.yml file that we can use to build an archlinux package in gitlab

image: archlinux/base:latest

before_script:
    - export PKGNAME=tallow

run-build:
  stage: build
  artifacts:
    paths:
    - "*.pkg.tar.xz"
    expire_in: 1 week
  script:
      # Create "Bob the Builder" !
    - groupadd bob && useradd -m -c "Bob the Builder" -g bob bob
      # Update archlinux and install git
    - pacman -Syy && pacman -Su --noconfirm --needed git base-devel
      # Git Clone package repository
    - git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/$PKGNAME.git
    - chown -R bob:bob $PKGNAME/
      # Read PKGBUILD
    - source $PKGNAME/PKGBUILD
      # Install Dependencies
    - pacman -Syu --noconfirm --needed --asdeps "${makedepends[@]}" "${depends[@]}"
      # Let Bob the Builder, build package
    - su - bob -s /bin/sh -c "cd $(pwd)/$PKGNAME/ && makepkg"
      # Get artifact
    - mv $PKGNAME/*.pkg.tar.xz ./

You can use this link to verify the above example: tallow at gitlab

But let me explain the steps:

  • First we create a user, Bob the Builder as in archlinux we can not use root to build a package for security reasons.
  • Then we update our container and install git and base-devel group. This group contains all relevant archlinux packages for building a new one.
  • After that, we git clone the package repo
  • Install any dependencies. This is a neat trick that I’ve found in archlinux forum using source command to create shell variables (arrays).
  • Now it is time for Bob to build the package !
  • and finally, we move the artifact in our local folder
Tag(s): archlinux, gitlab

Thursday, 15 August 2019

MinIO Intro Notes

MinIO is a high performance object storage server compatible with Amazon S3 APIs

In a previous article, I mentioned minio as an S3 gateway between my system and backblaze b2. I was impressed by minio. So in this blog post, I would like to investigate the primary use of minio as an S3 storage provider!

Install Minio

Minio, is also software written in Go. That means we can simple use the static binary executable in our machine.

Download

The latest release of minio is here:

curl -sLO https://dl.min.io/server/minio/release/linux-amd64/minio
chmod +x minio

Version

./minio version

$ ./minio version

Version: 2019-08-01T22:18:54Z
Release-Tag: RELEASE.2019-08-01T22-18-54Z
Commit-ID: c5ac901e8dac48d45079095a6bab04674872b28b

Operating System

Although we can use the static binary from minio’s site, I would propose to install minio through your distribution’s package manager, in Arch Linux is:

$ sudo pacman -S minio

this method, will also provide you, with a simple systemd service unit and a configuration file.

/etc/minio/minio.conf

# Local export path.
MINIO_VOLUMES="/srv/minio/data/"
# Access Key of the server.
# MINIO_ACCESS_KEY=Server-Access-Key
# Secret key of the server.
# MINIO_SECRET_KEY=Server-Secret-Key
# Use if you want to run Minio on a custom port.
# MINIO_OPTS="--address :9199"

Docker

Or if you like docker, you can use docker!

docker pull minio/minio
docker run -p 9000:9000 minio/minio server /data

Standalone

We can run minion as standalone

$ minio server /data

Create a test directory to use as storage:

$ mkdir -pv minio_data/
mkdir: created directory 'minio_data/'

$ /usr/bin/minio server ./minio_data/

┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ You are running an older version of MinIO released 1 week ago ┃
┃ Update: Run `minio update`                                    ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

Endpoint:  http://192.168.1.3:9000  http://192.168.42.1:9000  http://172.17.0.1:9000  http://172.18.0.1:9000  http://172.19.0.1:9000  http://192.168.122.1:9000  http://127.0.0.1:9000
AccessKey: KYAS2LSSPXRZFH9P6RHS
SecretKey: qPZnIBJDe6GTRrUWcfdtKk7GPL4fGyqANDzJxkur 

Browser Access:
   http://192.168.1.3:9000  http://192.168.42.1:9000  http://172.17.0.1:9000  http://172.18.0.1:9000  http://172.19.0.1:9000  http://192.168.122.1:9000  http://127.0.0.1:9000        

Command-line Access: https://docs.min.io/docs/minio-client-quickstart-guide
   $ mc config host add myminio http://192.168.1.3:9000 KYAS2LSSPXRZFH9P6RHS qPZnIBJDe6GTRrUWcfdtKk7GPL4fGyqANDzJxkur

Object API (Amazon S3 compatible):
   Go:         https://docs.min.io/docs/golang-client-quickstart-guide
   Java:       https://docs.min.io/docs/java-client-quickstart-guide
   Python:     https://docs.min.io/docs/python-client-quickstart-guide
   JavaScript: https://docs.min.io/docs/javascript-client-quickstart-guide
   .NET:       https://docs.min.io/docs/dotnet-client-quickstart-guide

Update Minio

okay, our package is from one week ago, but that’s okay. We can overwrite our package build (although not
recommended) with this:

$ sudo curl -sLo /usr/bin/minio https://dl.min.io/server/minio/release/linux-amd64/minio

again, NOT recommended.

Check version

minio version

Version: 2019-08-01T22:18:54Z
Release-Tag: RELEASE.2019-08-01T22-18-54Z
Commit-ID: c5ac901e8dac48d45079095a6bab04674872b28b

minio update

An alternative way, is to use the built-in update method:

$ sudo minio update

┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃ You are running an older version of MinIO released 5 days ago    ┃
┃ Update: https://dl.min.io/server/minio/release/linux-amd64/minio ┃
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

Update to RELEASE.2019-08-07T01-59-21Z ? [y/n]: y
MinIO updated to version RELEASE.2019-08-07T01-59-21Z successfully.

minio version

Version: 2019-08-07T01:59:21Z
Release-Tag: RELEASE.2019-08-07T01-59-21Z
Commit-ID: 930943f058f01f37cfbc2265d5f80ea7026ec55d

Run minio

run minion as standalone and localhost (not exposing our system to outside):

minio server --address 127.0.0.1:9000 ~/./minio_data/

output

$ minio server --address 127.0.0.1:9000 ~/./minio_data/

Endpoint:  http://127.0.0.1:9000
AccessKey: KYAS2LSSPXRZFH9P6RHS
SecretKey: qPZnIBJDe6GTRrUWcfdtKk7GPL4fGyqANDzJxkur 

Browser Access:
   http://127.0.0.1:9000

Command-line Access: https://docs.min.io/docs/minio-client-quickstart-guide
   $ mc config host add myminio http://127.0.0.1:9000 KYAS2LSSPXRZFH9P6RHS qPZnIBJDe6GTRrUWcfdtKk7GPL4fGyqANDzJxkur

Object API (Amazon S3 compatible):
   Go:         https://docs.min.io/docs/golang-client-quickstart-guide
   Java:       https://docs.min.io/docs/java-client-quickstart-guide
   Python:     https://docs.min.io/docs/python-client-quickstart-guide
   JavaScript: https://docs.min.io/docs/javascript-client-quickstart-guide
   .NET:       https://docs.min.io/docs/dotnet-client-quickstart-guide

Web Dashboard

minio comes with it’s own web dashboard!

minio_localhost.png

minio_dashboard.png

New Bucket

Let’s create a new bucket for testing purposes:

minio_create_new_bucket.png

minio_new_bucket.png

minio_new_bucket_name.png

minio_bucket0001.png

Minio Client

minio comes with it’s own minio client or mc

Install minio client

Binary Download

curl -sLO https://dl.min.io/client/mc/release/linux-amd64/mc

or better through your package manager:

sudo pacman -S minio-client

Access key / Secret Key

Now export our AK/SK in our enviroment

export -p MINIO_ACCESS_KEY=KYAS2LSSPXRZFH9P6RHS
export -p MINIO_SECRET_KEY=qPZnIBJDe6GTRrUWcfdtKk7GPL4fGyqANDzJxkur

minio host

or you can configure the minio server as a host:

./mc config host add myminio http://127.0.0.1:9000 KYAS2LSSPXRZFH9P6RHS qPZnIBJDe6GTRrUWcfdtKk7GPL4fGyqANDzJxkur

I prefer this way, cause I dont have to export keys every time.

List buckets

$ mc ls myminio
[2019-08-05 20:44:42 EEST]      0B bucket0001/

$ mc ls myminio/bucket0001
(empty)

List Policy

mc admin policy list myminio

$ mc admin policy list myminio
readonly
readwrite
writeonly

Credentials

If we do not want to get random Credentials every time, we can define them in our environment:

export MINIO_ACCESS_KEY=admin
export MINIO_SECRET_KEY=password
minio server --address 127.0.0.1:9000 .minio_data{1...10}

with minio client:

$ mc config host add myminio http://127.0.0.1:9000 admin password

mc: Configuration written to `/home/ebal/.mc/config.json`. Please update your access credentials.
mc: Successfully created `/home/ebal/.mc/share`.
mc: Initialized share uploads `/home/ebal/.mc/share/uploads.json` file.
mc: Initialized share downloads `/home/ebal/.mc/share/downloads.json` file.
Added `myminio` successfully.

mc admin config get myminio/ | jq .credential

$ mc admin config get myminio/ | jq .credential
{
  "accessKey": "8RMC49VEC1IHYS8FY29Q",
  "expiration": "1970-01-01T00:00:00Z",
  "secretKey": "AY+IjQZomX6ZClIBJrjgxRJ6ugu+Mpcx6rD+kr13",
  "status": "enabled"
}

s3cmd

Let’s configure s3cmd to use our minio data server:

$ sudo pacman -S s3cmd

Configure s3cmd

s3cmd --configure

$ s3cmd --configure

Enter new values or accept defaults in brackets with Enter.
Refer to user manual for detailed description of all options.

Access key and Secret key are your identifiers for Amazon S3. Leave them empty for using the env variables.
Access Key: KYAS2LSSPXRZFH9P6RHS
Secret Key: qPZnIBJDe6GTRrUWcfdtKk7GPL4fGyqANDzJxkur
Default Region [US]: 

Use "s3.amazonaws.com" for S3 Endpoint and not modify it to the target Amazon S3.
S3 Endpoint [s3.amazonaws.com]: http://127.0.0.1:9000
Use "%(bucket)s.s3.amazonaws.com" to the target Amazon S3. "%(bucket)s" and "%(location)s" vars can be used
if the target S3 system supports dns based buckets.
DNS-style bucket+hostname:port template for accessing a bucket [%(bucket)s.s3.amazonaws.com]: 

Encryption password is used to protect your files from reading
by unauthorized persons while in transfer to S3
Encryption password:
Path to GPG program [/usr/bin/gpg]: 
When using secure HTTPS protocol all communication with Amazon S3
servers is protected from 3rd party eavesdropping. This method is
slower than plain HTTP, and can only be proxied with Python 2.7 or newer
Use HTTPS protocol [Yes]: n
On some networks all internet access must go through a HTTP proxy.
Try setting it here if you can't connect to S3 directly
HTTP Proxy server name: 
New settings:
  Access Key: KYAS2LSSPXRZFH9P6RHS
  Secret Key: qPZnIBJDe6GTRrUWcfdtKk7GPL4fGyqANDzJxkur
  Default Region: US
  S3 Endpoint: http://127.0.0.1:9000
  DNS-style bucket+hostname:port template for accessing a bucket: %(bucket)s.s3.amazonaws.com
  Encryption password:
  Path to GPG program: /usr/bin/gpg
  Use HTTPS protocol: False
  HTTP Proxy server name:
  HTTP Proxy server port: 0

Test access with supplied credentials? [Y/n] y
Please wait, attempting to list all buckets...
ERROR: Test failed: [Errno -2] Name or service not known

Retry configuration? [Y/n] n

Save settings? [y/N] y
Configuration saved to '/home/ebal/.s3cfg'

Test it

$ s3cmd ls
2019-08-05 17:44  s3://bucket0001

Distributed

Let’s make a more complex example and test the distributed capabilities of minio

Create folders

mkdir -pv .minio_data{1..10}

$ mkdir -pv .minio_data{1..10}

mkdir: created directory '.minio_data1'
mkdir: created directory '.minio_data2'
mkdir: created directory '.minio_data3'
mkdir: created directory '.minio_data4'
mkdir: created directory '.minio_data5'
mkdir: created directory '.minio_data6'
mkdir: created directory '.minio_data7'
mkdir: created directory '.minio_data8'
mkdir: created directory '.minio_data9'
mkdir: created directory '.minio_data10'

Start Server

Be-aware you have to user 3 dots (…) to enable erasure-code distribution (see below).

and start minio server like this:

minio server --address 127.0.0.1:9000 .minio_data{1...10}

$ minio server --address 127.0.0.1:9000 .minio_data{1...10}

Waiting for all other servers to be online to format the disks.

Status:         10 Online, 0 Offline.
Endpoint:  http://127.0.0.1:9000
AccessKey: CDSBN216JQR5B3F3VG71
SecretKey: CE+ti7XuLBrV3uasxSjRyhAKX8oxtZYnnEwRU9ik 

Browser Access:
   http://127.0.0.1:9000

Command-line Access: https://docs.min.io/docs/minio-client-quickstart-guide
   $ mc config host add myminio http://127.0.0.1:9000 CDSBN216JQR5B3F3VG71 CE+ti7XuLBrV3uasxSjRyhAKX8oxtZYnnEwRU9ik

Object API (Amazon S3 compatible):
   Go:         https://docs.min.io/docs/golang-client-quickstart-guide
   Java:       https://docs.min.io/docs/java-client-quickstart-guide
   Python:     https://docs.min.io/docs/python-client-quickstart-guide
   JavaScript: https://docs.min.io/docs/javascript-client-quickstart-guide
   .NET:       https://docs.min.io/docs/dotnet-client-quickstart-guide

configure mc

$ ./mc config host add myminio http://127.0.0.1:9000 WWFUTUKB110NS1V70R27 73ecITehtG2rOF6F08rfRmbF+iqXjNr6qmgAvdb2
Added `myminio` successfully.

admin info

mc admin info myminio

$ mc admin info myminio
●  127.0.0.1:9000
   Uptime: 3 minutes
  Version: 2019-08-07T01:59:21Z
  Storage: Used 25 KiB
   Drives: 10/10 OK

minio_admin_info_drive_okay.png

Create files

Creating random files

for i in $(seq 10000) ;do echo $RANDOM > file$i ; done

and by the way, we can use mc to list our local files also!

$ mc ls file* | head

[2019-08-05 21:27:01 EEST]      6B file1
[2019-08-05 21:27:01 EEST]      5B file10
[2019-08-05 21:27:01 EEST]      5B file100
[2019-08-05 21:27:01 EEST]      6B file11
[2019-08-05 21:27:01 EEST]      6B file12
[2019-08-05 21:27:01 EEST]      6B file13
[2019-08-05 21:27:01 EEST]      6B file14
[2019-08-05 21:27:01 EEST]      5B file15
[2019-08-05 21:27:01 EEST]      5B file16

Create bucket

mc ls myminio

$ mc mb myminio/bucket0002
Bucket created successfully `myminio/bucket0002`.

$ mc ls myminio
[2019-08-05 21:41:35 EEST]      0B bucket0002/

Copy files

mc cp file* myminio/bucket0002/

minio_copy_files.png

be patient, even in a local filesystem, it will take a long time.

minio_copy_files_finish.png

Erasure Code

copying from MinIO docs

you may lose up to half (N/2) of the total drives
MinIO shards the objects across N/2 data and N/2 parity drives

Here is the

$ du -sh .minio_data*

79M    .minio_data1
79M    .minio_data10
79M    .minio_data2
79M    .minio_data3
79M    .minio_data4
79M    .minio_data5
79M    .minio_data6
79M    .minio_data7
79M    .minio_data8
79M    .minio_data9

but what size did our files had?

$ du -sh files/
40M     files

Very insteresting.

$ tree .minio_data*

Here is shorter list, to get an idea how objects are structured: minio_data_tree.txt

$ mc ls myminio/bucket0002 | wc -l
10000

minio_dashboard_tree.txt

Delete a folder

Let’s see how handles corrupted disks, but before that let’s keep a hash of our files:

md5sum file* > /tmp/files.before

now remove:

$ rm -rf .minio_data10 

$ ls -la
total 0
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal    226 Aug 15 20:25 .
drwx--x---+ 1 ebal ebal   3532 Aug 15 19:13 ..
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal     40 Aug 15 20:25 .minio_data1
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal     40 Aug 15 20:25 .minio_data2
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal     40 Aug 15 20:25 .minio_data3
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal     40 Aug 15 20:25 .minio_data4
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal     40 Aug 15 20:25 .minio_data5
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal     40 Aug 15 20:25 .minio_data6
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal     40 Aug 15 20:25 .minio_data7
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal     40 Aug 15 20:25 .minio_data8
drwxr-x---  1 ebal ebal     40 Aug 15 20:25 .minio_data9

Notice that folder: minio_data10 is not there.

mc admin info myminio/

$ mc admin info myminio/
●  127.0.0.1:9000
   Uptime: 6 days
  Version: 2019-08-14T20:37:41Z
  Storage: Used 57 MiB
   Drives: 9/10 OK

minio_admin_info_drive.png

This is the msg in minio server console:

API: SYSTEM()
Time: 20:23:50 EEST 08/15/2019
DeploymentID: 7852c1e1-146a-4ce9-8a05-50ad7b925fef
Error: unformatted disk found
       endpoint=.minio_data10
       3: cmd/prepare-storage.go:40:cmd.glob..func15.1()
       2: cmd/xl-sets.go:212:cmd.(*xlSets).connectDisks()
       1: cmd/xl-sets.go:243:cmd.(*xlSets).monitorAndConnectEndpoints()

Error: unformatted disk found

We will see that minio will try to create the disk/volume/folder in our system:

$ du -sh .minio_data*
79M    .minio_data1
0       .minio_data10
79M    .minio_data2
79M    .minio_data3
79M    .minio_data4
79M    .minio_data5
79M    .minio_data6
79M    .minio_data7
79M    .minio_data8
79M    .minio_data9

Heal

Minio comes with a healing ability:

$ mc admin heal --recursive myminio/

minio_heal.png

$ du -sh .minio_data*

79M     .minio_data1
79M     .minio_data10
79M     .minio_data2
79M     .minio_data3
79M     .minio_data4
79M     .minio_data5
79M     .minio_data6
79M     .minio_data7
79M     .minio_data8
79M     .minio_data9
$ mc admin heal --recursive myminio/
 ◐  bucket0002/file9999
    10,000/10,000 objects; 55 KiB in 58m21s
    ┌────────┬────────┬─────────────────────┐
    │ Green  │ 10,004 │ 100.0% ████████████ │
    │ Yellow │      0 │   0.0%              │
    │ Red    │      0 │   0.0%              │
    │ Grey   │      0 │   0.0%              │
    └────────┴────────┴─────────────────────┘
Tag(s): minio, s3

Friday, 09 August 2019

Order your Akademy t-shirt *NOW*

If you want an Akademy 2019 t-shirt you have until Monday 12th Aug at 1100CEST (i.e. in 2 days and a bit) to order it.

Head over to https://akademy.kde.org/2019/akademy-2019-t-shirt and get yourself one of the exclusive t-shirts with Jen's awesome design :)

Sunday, 28 July 2019

My KDE Onboarding Sprint 2019 report

This week I took part on the KDE Onboarding Sprint 2019 (part of what's been known as Nuremberg Megasprint (i.e. KDEConnect+KWin+Onboarding) in, you guessed it, Nuremberg.

The goal of the sprint was "how do we make it easier for people to start contributing". We mostly focused on the "start contributing *code*" side, though we briefly touched artists and translators too.

This is *my* summary, a more official one will appear somewhere else, so don't get annoyed at me if the blog is a bit opinionated (though i'll try it not to)

The main issues we've identified when trying to contribute to KDE software is:
* Getting dependencies is [sometimes] hard
* Actually running the software is [sometimes] hard

Dependencies are hard

Say you want to build dolphin from the git master branch. For that (at the time of writing) you need KDE Frameworks 5.57, this means that if you run the latest Ubuntu or the latest OpenSUSE you can't build it because they ship older versions.

Our current answer for that is kdesrc-build but it's not the most easy to use script, and sometimes you may end up building QtWebEngine or QtWebKit, which as a newbie is something you most likely don't want to do.

Running is hard

Running the software you have just built (once you've passed the dependencies problem) is not trivial either.

Most of our software can't be run uninstalled (KDE Frameworks are a notable exception here, but newbies rarely start developing KDE Frameworks).

This means that you may try to run make install, which if you didn't pass -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX pointing somewhere in your home you'll probably have to run make install as root since it defaults to /usr/local (this will be fixed in next extra-cmake-modules release to point to a somewhat better prefix) that isn't that useful either since none of your software is looking for stuff in /usr/local. Newbies may be tempted to use -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr but that's *VERY* dangerous since it can easily mess up your own system.

For applications, our typical answer is use -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/home/something/else at cmake stage, run make install and then set the environment variables to pick up things from /home/something/else, a newbie will say "which variables" at this stage probably (and not newbies too, I don't think i remember them all). To help with that we generate a prefix.sh in the build dir and after the next extra-cmake-release we will tell the users that they need to run it for things to work.

But still that's quite convoluted and I know from experience answering people in IRC that lots of people get stuck there. It's also very IDE unfriendly since IDEs don't usually have the "install" concept, it's run & build for them.

Solutions

We ended up focusing on two possible solutions:

* Conan: Conan "the C/C++ Package Manager for Developers" (or so they say) is something like pip in the python world but for C/C++. The idea is that by using Conan to get the dependencies we will solve most of the problems in that area. Whether it can help or not with the running side is still unclear, but some of our people involved in the Conan effort think they may either be able to come up with a solution or get the Conan devs to help us with it. Note Conan is not my speciality by far, so this may not be totally correct.

* Flatpak: Flatpak is "a next-generation technology for building and distributing desktop applications on Linux" (or so they say). The benefits of using flatpak are multiple, but focusing on onboarding are. "Getting dependencies is solved", dependencies are either part of the flatpatk SDK and you have them or the flatpak manifest for the application says how to get and build them and that will automagically work for you as it works for everyone else using the same manifest. "Running is solved" because when you build a flatpak it gets built into a self contained artifact so running it is just running it, no installing or environment variable fiddling is needed. We also have [preliminary] support in KDevelop (or you can use Gnome Builder if you want a more flatpak-centric experience for now). The main problem we have with flatpak at this point is that most of our apps are not totally flatpak-ready (e.g. Okular can't print). But that's something we need to fix anyway so it shouldn't be counted as a problem (IMHO).

Summary

*Personally* i think Flatpak is the way to go here, but that means that collectively we need to say "Let's do it", it's something we all have to take into account and thus we have to streamline the manifest handling/updating, focus on fixing the Flatpak related issues that our software may have, etc.

Thanks

I would like to thank SUSE for hosting us in their offices and the KDE e.V. for sponsoring my attendance to the sprint, please donate to KDE if you think the work done at sprints is important.

Saturday, 20 July 2019

A Dead Simple VPN

DSVPN is designed to address the most common use case for using a VPN

Works with TCP, blocks IPv6 leaks, redirect-gateway out-of-the-box!

 

last updated: 20190810

  • iptables rules example added
  • change vpn.key to dsvpn.key
  • add base64 example for easy copy/transfer across machines

 

dsvpn.png

 

dsvpn binary

I keep a personal gitlab CI for dsvpn here: DSVPN

Compile

Notes on the latest ubuntu:18.04 docker image:

# git clone https://github.com/jedisct1/dsvpn.git
Cloning into 'dsvpn'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 88, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (88/88), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (59/59), done.
remote: Total 478 (delta 47), reused 65 (delta 29), pack-reused 390
Receiving objects: 100% (478/478), 93.24 KiB | 593.00 KiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (311/311), done.

# cd dsvpn

# ls
LICENSE  Makefile  README.md  include  logo.png  src

# make
cc -march=native -Ofast -Wall -W -Wshadow -Wmissing-prototypes -Iinclude -o dsvpn src/dsvpn.c src/charm.c src/os.c
strip dsvpn

# ldd dsvpn
linux-vdso.so.1 (0x00007ffd409ba000)
libc.so.6 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 (0x00007fd78480b000)
/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007fd784e03000)

# ls -l dsvpn
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 26840 Jul 20 15:51 dsvpn

Just copy the dsvpn binary to your machines.

 

Symmetric Key

dsvpn uses symmetric-key cryptography, that means both machines uses the same encyrpted key.

dsvpn_key.png

dd if=/dev/urandom of=dsvpn.key count=1 bs=32

Copy the key to both machines using a secure media, like ssh.

base64

An easy way is to convert key to base64

cat dsvpn.key | base64

ZqMa31qBLrfjjNUfhGj8ADgzmo8+FqlyTNJPBzk/x4k=

on the other machine:

echo ZqMa31qBLrfjjNUfhGj8ADgzmo8+FqlyTNJPBzk/x4k= | base64 -d > dsvpn.key

 

Server

It is very easy to run dsvpn in server mode:

eg.

dsvpn server dsvpn.key auto

Interface: [tun0]
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
Listening to *:443

ip addr show tun0

4: tun0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 9000 qdisc fq_codel state UNKNOWN group default qlen 500
    link/none
    inet 192.168.192.254 peer 192.168.192.1/32 scope global tun0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

I prefer to use 10.8.0.0/24 CIDR in my VPNs, so in my VPN setup:

dsvpn server /root/dsvpn.key auto 443 auto 10.8.0.254 10.8.0.2

Using 10.8.0.254 as the VPN Server IP.

systemd service unit - server

I’ve created a simple systemd script dsvpn_server.service

or you can copy it from here:

/etc/systemd/system/dsvpn.service

[Unit]
Description=Dead Simple VPN - Server

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/dsvpn server /root/dsvpn.key auto 443 auto 10.8.0.254 10.8.0.2
Restart=always
RestartSec=20

[Install]
WantedBy=network.target

and then:

systemctl enable dsvpn.service
systemctl  start dsvpn.service

Client

It is also easy to run dsvpn in client mode:

eg.

dsvpn client dsvpn.key 93.184.216.34

# dsvpn client dsvpn.key 93.184.216.34
Interface: [tun0]
Trying to reconnect
Connecting to 93.184.216.34:443...
net.ipv4.tcp_congestion_control = bbr
Connected

ip addr show tun0

4: tun0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 9000 qdisc fq_codel state UNKNOWN group default qlen 500
    link/none
    inet 192.168.192.1 peer 192.168.192.254/32 scope global tun0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

dsvpn works in redict-gateway mode,
so it will apply routing rules to pass all the network traffic through the VPN.

ip route list

0.0.0.0/1 via 192.168.192.254 dev tun0
default via 192.168.122.1 dev eth0 proto static
93.184.216.34 via 192.168.122.1 dev eth0
128.0.0.0/1 via 192.168.192.254 dev tun0
192.168.122.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.122.69
192.168.192.254  dev tun0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.192.1

As I mentioned above, I prefer to use 10.8.0.0/24 CIDR in my VPNs, so in my VPN client:

dsvpn client /root/dsvpn.key 93.184.216.34 443 auto 10.8.0.2 10.8.0.254

Using 10.8.0.2 as the VPN Client IP.

ip addr show tun0

11: tun0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 9000 qdisc fq_codel state UNKNOWN group default qlen 500
    link/none
    inet 10.8.0.2 peer 10.8.0.254/32 scope global tun0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

systemd service unit - client

I’ve also created a simple systemd script for the client dsvpn_client.service

or you can copy it from here:

/etc/systemd/system/dsvpn.service

[Unit]
Description=Dead Simple VPN - Client

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/dsvpn client /root/dsvpn.key 93.184.216.34 443 auto 10.8.0.2 10.8.0.254
Restart=always
RestartSec=20

[Install]
WantedBy=network.target

and then:

systemctl enable dsvpn.service
systemctl  start dsvpn.service

and here is an MTR from the client:

dsvpn_mtr.png

 

Enjoy !

 

firewall

It is important to protect your traffic from network leaks. That mean, sometimes, we do not want our network traffic to pass through our provider if the vpn server/client went down. To prevent any network leak, here is an example of iptables rules for a virtual machine:

# Empty iptables rule file
*filter
:INPUT   ACCEPT [0:0]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT  ACCEPT [0:0]

-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate INVALID -j DROP
-A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 8 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -j ACCEPT

# LibVirt
-A INPUT -i eth0 -s 192.168.122.0/24 -j ACCEPT

# Reject incoming traffic
-A INPUT -j REJECT

# DSVPN
-A OUTPUT -p tcp -m tcp -o eth0 -d 93.184.216.34 --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
# LibVirt
-A OUTPUT -o eth0 -d 192.168.122.0/24 -j ACCEPT
# Allow tun
-A OUTPUT -o tun+ -j ACCEPT

# Reject outgoing traffic
-A OUTPUT -p tcp -j REJECT --reject-with tcp-reset
-A OUTPUT -p udp -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-port-unreachable

COMMIT

Here is the prefable output:

dsvpn_ping.png

 

Tag(s): vpn, dsvpn

Friday, 19 July 2019

Popular licenses in OpenAPI

Today I was wondering what the most commonly used license that people use in OpenAPI, so I went and did a quick analysis.

Results

The top 5 (with count and percentage; n=552):

License name count percentage
CC-BY-3.0 250 45,29%
Apache-2.01 218 39,49%
MIT 15 2,71%
“This page was built with the Swagger API.” 8 1,44%
“Open Government License – British Columbia” 6 1,09%

The striked-out entries are the ones that I would not really consider a proper license.

The license names inside quotation marks are the exact copy-paste from the field. The rest are de-duplicated into their SPDX identifiers.

After those top 5 the long end goes very quickly into only one license per listed API. Several of those seem very odd as well.

Methodology

Note: Before you start complaining, I realise this is probably a very sub-optimal solution code-wise, but it worked for me. In my defence, I did open up my copy of the Sed & Awk Pocket Reference before my eyes went all glassy and I hacked up the following ugly method. Also note that the shell scripts are in Fish shell and may not work directly in a 100% POSIX shell.

First, I needed to get a data set to work on. Hat-tip to Mike Ralphson for pointing me to APIs Guru as a good resource. I analysed their APIs-guru/openapi-directory repository2, where in the APIs folder they keep a big collection of public APIs. Most of them following the OpenAPI (previously Swagger) specification.

git clone https://github.com/APIs-guru/openapi-directory.git
cd openapi-directory/APIs

Next I needed to list all the licenses found there. For this I assumed the name: tag in YAML4 (the one including the name of the license) to be in the very next line after the license: tag3 – I relied on people writing OpenAPI files in the same order as it is laid out in the OpenAPI Specification. I stored the list of all licenses, sorted alphabetically in a separate api_licenses file:

grep 'license:' **/openapi.yaml **/swagger.yaml -A 1 --no-filename | \
grep 'name:' | sort > api_licenses

Then I generated another file called api_licenses_unique that would include only all names of these licenses.

grep 'license:' **/openapi.yaml **/swagger.yaml -A 1 --no-filename | \
grep 'name:' | sort | uniq > api_licenses_unique

Because I was too lazy to figure out how to do this properly5, I simply wrapped the same one-liner into a script to go through all the unique license names and count how many times they show up in the (non-duplicated) list of all licenses found.

for license in (grep 'license:' **/openapi.yaml **/swagger.yaml -A 1 \
--no-filename | grep 'name' | sort | uniq)
                           grep "$license" api_licenses --count
                       end

In the end I copied the console output of this last command, opened api_licenses_unique, and pasted said output in the first column (by going into Block Selection Mode in Kate).

Clarification on what I consider “proper license” and re-count of Creative Commons licenses (12 July 2019 update)

I was asked what I considered as a “proper license” above, and specifically why I did not consider “Creative Commons” as such.

First, if the string did not even remotely look like a name of a license, I did not consider that as a proper license. This is the case e.g. with “This page was built with the Swagger API.”.

As for the string “Creative Commons”, it – at best – indicates a family o licenses, which span a vast spectrum from CC0-1.0 (basically public domain) on one end to CC-BY-NC-CA-4.0 (basically, you may copy this, but not change anything, nor get money out of it, and you must keep the same license) on the other. For reference, on the SPDX license list, you will find 32 Creative Commons licenses. And SPDX lists only the International and Universal versions of them7.

Admiteldy, – and this is a caveat in my initial method above – it may be that there is an actual license following the lines after the “Creative Commons” string … or, as it turned out to be true, that the initial 255 count of name: Creative Commons licenses included also valid CC license names such as name: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.

So, obviously I made a boo-boo, and therefore went and dug deeper ;)

To do so, and after looking at the results a bit more, I noticed that the url: entries of the name: Creative Commons licenses seem to point to actual CC licenses, so I decided to rely on that. Luckily, this turned out to be true.

I broadened up the initial search to one extra line, to include the url: line, narrowed down the next search to name: Creative Commons, and in the end only to url:

grep 'license:' **/openapi.yaml **/swagger.yaml -A 2 --no-filename | \
grep 'name: Creative Commons' -A 1 | grep 'url' | sort > api_licenses_cc

Next, I searched for the most common license – CC-BY-3.0:

grep --count 'creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0' api_licenses_cc

The result was 250, so for the remaining6 5 I just opened the api_licenses_cc file and counted them manually.

Using this method the list of all “Creative Commons” license turned out to be as follows:

  1. CC-BY-3.0 (250, of which one was specific to Australian jurisdiction)
  2. CC-BY-4.0 (3)
  3. CC-BY-NC-4.0 (1)
  4. CC-BY-NC-ND-2.0 (1)

In this light, I am amending the results above, and removing the bogus “Creative Commons” entry. Apart from removing the bogus entry, it does not change the ranking, nor the counts, of the top 5 licenses.

Further clean-up of Apache (17 July 2019 update)

Upon further inspection it looked odd that I was getting so many Apache-2.0 matches – if you added all the Apache-2.0 hits (initially 421) with all the CC-BY-3.0 hits (250), you already reached a higher number than all the occurrances of the license: field in all the files (552). Clearly something was off.

So I re-counted the Apache hits by limiting myself only to the url: field of the license:, instead of the name: and came to a half of the original number. Which brought it from first down to second place. Basically I applied the same method as above for counting Creative Commons licenses.

Better method (25 July 2019 update)

I just learnt from Jaka “Lynx” Kranjc of a better solution. Basically, I could cut down quite a bit by simply using uniq --count, which produces a unique list and prepends a column of how many times it found that occurance – super useful!

I will not edit my findings above again, but am mentioning the better method below, together with the attached results, so others can simply check.

grep 'license:' **/openapi.yaml **/swagger.yaml -A 1 --no-filename | \
grep 'name:' |  uniq -c | sort > OpenAPI_grouped_by_license_name.txt

… produces OpenAPI_grouped_by_license_name.txt

grep 'license:' **/openapi.yaml **/swagger.yaml -A 2 --no-filename | \
grep 'url:' |  uniq -c | sort > OpenAPI_grouped_by_license_url.txt

… produces OpenAPI_grouped_by_license_url.txt

hook out → not proud of the method, but happy with having results


  1. This should come as no surprise, as Apache-2.0 is used as the official specification’s example

  2. At the time of this writing, that was commit 506133b

  3. I tried it also with 3 lines, and the few extra results that came up where mostly useless. 

  4. I did a quick check and the repository seems to include no OpenAPIs in JSON format. 

  5. I expected for license in api_licenses_unique to work, but it did not. 

  6. The result of wc -l api_licenses_cc was 255. 

  7. Prior to version 4.0 of Creative Commons licenses each CC license had several versions localised for specific jurisdictions. 

Thursday, 18 July 2019

slack-desktop and xdg-open

Notes from archlinux

xdg-open - opens a file or URL in the user’s preferred application

When you are trying to authenticate to a new workspace (with 2fa) using the slack-desktop, it will open your default browser and after the authentication your browser will re-direct you to the slack-desktop again using something like this

slack://6f69f7c8b/magic-login/t3bnakl6qabc-16869c6603bdb64f3a6f69f7c8b2d920fa26149f990e0556b4e5c6f26984db0a

This is mime query !

$ xdg-mime query default x-scheme-handler/slack
slack.desktop

$ locate slack.desktop
/usr/share/applications/slack.desktop
$ more /usr/share/applications/slack.desktop

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Slack
Comment=Slack Desktop
GenericName=Slack Client for Linux
Exec=/usr/bin/slack --disable-gpu %U
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/slack.png
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
Categories=GNOME;GTK;Network;InstantMessaging;
MimeType=x-scheme-handler/slack;

I had to change the Exec entry above to point to my slack-desktop binary

Tag(s): slack, xdg

Monday, 15 July 2019

KDE Applications 19.08 branches created

Make sure you commit anything you want to end up in the KDE Applications 19.08 release to them

We're already past the dependency freeze.

The Freeze and Beta is this Thursday 18 of July.

More interesting dates
August 1, 2019: KDE Applications 19.08 RC (19.07.90) Tagging and Release
August 8, 2019: KDE Applications 19.08 Tagging
August 15, 2019: KDE Applications 19.08 Release

https://community.kde.org/Schedules/Applications/19.08_Release_Schedule

Sunday, 14 July 2019

kubernetes with minikube - Intro Notes

Notes based on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS

My notes for this k8s blog post are based upon an Ubuntu 18.05 LTS KVM Virtual Machine. The idea is to use nested-kvm to run minikube inside a VM, that then minikube will create a kvm node.

minikube builds a local kubernetes cluster on a single node with a set of small resources to run a small kubernetes deployment.

Archlinux –> VM Ubuntu 18.04 LTS runs minikube/kubeclt —> KVM minikube node

 

Pre-requirements

Nested kvm

Host

(archlinux)

$ grep ^NAME /etc/os-release
NAME="Arch Linux"

Check that nested-kvm is already supported:

$ cat /sys/module/kvm_intel/parameters/nested
N

If the output is N (No) then remove & enable kernel module again:

$ sudo modprobe -r kvm_intel
$ sudo modprobe kvm_intel nested=1

Check that nested-kvm is now enabled:

$ cat /sys/module/kvm_intel/parameters/nested
Y

 

Guest

Inside the virtual machine:

$ grep NAME /etc/os-release
NAME="Ubuntu"
PRETTY_NAME="Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS"
VERSION_CODENAME=bionic
UBUNTU_CODENAME=bionic
$ egrep -o 'vmx|svm|0xc0f' /proc/cpuinfo

vmx
$ kvm-ok
INFO: /dev/kvm exists
KVM acceleration can be used

 

LibVirtd

If the above step fails, try to edit the xml libvirtd configuration file in your host:

# virsh edit ubuntu_18.04

and change cpu mode to passthrough:

from

  <cpu mode='custom' match='exact' check='partial'>
    <model fallback='allow'>Nehalem</model>
  </cpu>

to

  <cpu mode='host-passthrough' check='none'/>

 

Install Virtualization Tools

Inside the VM

 

sudo apt -y install
  qemu-kvm
  bridge-utils
  libvirt-clients
  libvirt-daemon-system

Permissions

We need to be included in the libvirt group

sudo usermod -a -G libvirt $(whoami)
newgrp libvirt

 

kubectl

kubectl is a command line interface for running commands against Kubernetes clusters.

size: ~41M

$ export VERSION=$(curl -sL https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/stable.txt)
$ curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/$VERSION/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl

$ chmod +x kubectl
$ sudo mv kubectl /usr/local/bin/kubectl

$ kubectl completion bash | sudo tee -a /etc/bash_completion.d/kubectl
$ kubectl version

if you wan to use bash autocompletion without logout/login use this:

source <(kubectl completion bash)

What the json output of kubectl version looks like:

$ kubectl version -o json | jq .
The connection to the server localhost:8080 was refused - did you specify the right host or port?
{
  "clientVersion": {
    "major": "1",
    "minor": "15",
    "gitVersion": "v1.15.0",
    "gitCommit": "e8462b5b5dc2584fdcd18e6bcfe9f1e4d970a529",
    "gitTreeState": "clean",
    "buildDate": "2019-06-19T16:40:16Z",
    "goVersion": "go1.12.5",
    "compiler": "gc",
    "platform": "linux/amd64"
  }
}

Message:

The connection to the server localhost:8080 was refused - did you specify the right host or port?

it’s okay if minikube hasnt started yet.

 

minikube

size: ~40M

$ curl -sLO https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/releases/latest/minikube-linux-amd64

$ chmod +x minikube-linux-amd64

$ sudo mv minikube-linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/minikube

$ minikube version
minikube version: v1.2.0

$ minikube update-check
CurrentVersion: v1.2.0
LatestVersion: v1.2.0

$ minikube completion bash | sudo tee -a /etc/bash_completion.d/minikube 

To include bash completion without login/logout:

source $(minikube completion bash)

 

KVM2 driver

We need a driver so that minikube can build a kvm image/node for our kubernetes cluster.

size: ~36M

$ curl -sLO https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/releases/latest/docker-machine-driver-kvm2

$ chmod +x docker-machine-driver-kvm2

$ mv docker-machine-driver-kvm2 /usr/local/bin/

 

Start minikube

$ minikube start --vm-driver kvm2

* minikube v1.2.0 on linux (amd64)
* Downloading Minikube ISO ...
 129.33 MB / 129.33 MB [============================================] 100.00% 0s
* Creating kvm2 VM (CPUs=2, Memory=2048MB, Disk=20000MB) ...
* Configuring environment for Kubernetes v1.15.0 on Docker 18.09.6
* Downloading kubeadm v1.15.0
* Downloading kubelet v1.15.0
* Pulling images ...
* Launching Kubernetes ...
* Verifying: apiserver proxy etcd scheduler controller dns
* Done! kubectl is now configured to use "minikube"

Check via libvirt, you will find out a new VM, named: minikube

$ virsh list
 Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
 1     minikube                       running

 

Something gone wrong:

Just delete the VM and configuration directories and start again:

$ minikube delete
$ rm -rf ~/.minikube/ ~/.kube

kubectl version

Now let’s run kubectl version again

$ kubectl version -o json | jq .

{
  "clientVersion": {
    "major": "1",
    "minor": "15",
    "gitVersion": "v1.15.0",
    "gitCommit": "e8462b5b5dc2584fdcd18e6bcfe9f1e4d970a529",
    "gitTreeState": "clean",
    "buildDate": "2019-06-19T16:40:16Z",
    "goVersion": "go1.12.5",
    "compiler": "gc",
    "platform": "linux/amd64"
  },
  "serverVersion": {
    "major": "1",
    "minor": "15",
    "gitVersion": "v1.15.0",
    "gitCommit": "e8462b5b5dc2584fdcd18e6bcfe9f1e4d970a529",
    "gitTreeState": "clean",
    "buildDate": "2019-06-19T16:32:14Z",
    "goVersion": "go1.12.5",
    "compiler": "gc",
    "platform": "linux/amd64"
  }
}

 

Dashboard

Start kubernetes dashboard

$ kubectl proxy --address 0.0.0.0 --accept-hosts '.*'
Starting to serve on [::]:8001

minikube_dashboard.png

 

Tuesday, 09 July 2019

Beware of some of the Qt 5.13 deprecation porting hints

QComboBox::currentIndexChanged(QString) used to have (i.e. in Qt 5.13.0) a deprecation warning that said "Use currentTextChanged() instead".

That has recently been reverted since both are not totally equivalent, sure, you can probably "port" from one to the other, but the "use" wording to me seems like a "this is the same" and they are not.

Another one of those is QPainter::initFrom, which inits a painter with the pen, background and font to the same as the given widget. This is deprecated, because it's probably wrong ("what is the pen of a widget?") but the deprecation warning says "Use begin(QPaintDevice*)" but again if you look at the implementation, they don't really do the same. Still need to find time to complain to the Qt developers and get it fixed.

Anyhow, as usual, when porting make sure you do a correct port and not just blind changes.

Monday, 08 July 2019

Repair a Faulty Disk in Raid-5

Quick notes

Identify slow disk

# hdparm -Tt /dev/sda

/dev/sda:
 Timing cached reads:   2502 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1251.34 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 538 MB in  3.01 seconds = 178.94 MB/sec

# hdparm -Tt /dev/sdb

/dev/sdb:
 Timing cached reads:   2490 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1244.86 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 536 MB in  3.01 seconds = 178.31 MB/sec

# hdparm -Tt /dev/sdc

/dev/sdc:
 Timing cached reads:   2524 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1262.21 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 538 MB in  3.00 seconds = 179.15 MB/sec

# hdparm -Tt /dev/sdd

/dev/sdd:
 Timing cached reads:   2234 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1117.20 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: read(2097152) returned 929792 bytes

 

Set disk to Faulty State and Remove it

#  mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --fail /dev/sdd
mdadm: set /dev/sdd faulty in /dev/md0

#  mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --remove  /dev/sdd
mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdd from /dev/md0

Verify Status

# mdadm --verbose --detail /dev/md0
/dev/md0:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Thu Feb  6 15:06:34 2014
     Raid Level : raid5
     Array Size : 2929893888 (2794.16 GiB 3000.21 GB)
  Used Dev Size : 976631296 (931.39 GiB 1000.07 GB)
   Raid Devices : 4
  Total Devices : 3
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Mon Jul  8 00:51:14 2019
          State : clean, degraded
 Active Devices : 3
Working Devices : 3
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0

         Layout : left-symmetric
     Chunk Size : 512K

           Name : ServerOne:0  (local to host ServerOne)
           UUID : d635095e:50457059:7e6ccdaf:7da91c9b
         Events : 18122

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       0       8       16        0      active sync   /dev/sdb
       6       8       32        1      active sync   /dev/sdc
       4       0        0        4      removed
       4       8        0        3      active sync   /dev/sda

Format Disk

  • quick format to identify bad blocks,
  • better solution zeroing the disk
# mkfs.ext4 -cc -v  /dev/sdd 
  • middle ground to use -c

-c Check the device for bad blocks before creating the file system. If this option is specified twice, then a slower read-write test is used instead of a fast read-only test.

# mkfs.ext4 -c -v  /dev/sdd 

output:

Running command: badblocks -b 4096 -X -s /dev/sdd 244190645
Checking for bad blocks (read-only test):   9.76% done, 7:37 elapsed

Remove ext headers

# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdd bs=4096 count=4096

Using dd to remove any ext headers

Test disk


# hdparm -Tt /dev/sdd

/dev/sdd:
 Timing cached reads:   2174 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1087.20 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 516 MB in  3.00 seconds = 171.94 MB/sec

Add Disk to Raid


# mdadm --add /dev/md0 /dev/sdd
mdadm: added /dev/sdd

Speed

# hdparm -Tt /dev/md0

/dev/md0:
 Timing cached reads:   2480 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1239.70 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 1412 MB in  3.00 seconds = 470.62 MB/sec

Status


# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md0 : active raid5 sdd[5] sda[4] sdc[6] sdb[0]
      2929893888 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/3] [UU_U]
      [>....................]  recovery =  0.0% (44032/976631296) finish=369.5min speed=44032K/sec

unused devices: <none>

Verify Raid


# mdadm --verbose --detail /dev/md0
/dev/md0:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Thu Feb  6 15:06:34 2014
     Raid Level : raid5
     Array Size : 2929893888 (2794.16 GiB 3000.21 GB)
  Used Dev Size : 976631296 (931.39 GiB 1000.07 GB)
   Raid Devices : 4
  Total Devices : 4
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Mon Jul  8 00:58:38 2019
          State : clean, degraded, recovering
 Active Devices : 3
Working Devices : 4
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 1

         Layout : left-symmetric
     Chunk Size : 512K

 Rebuild Status : 0% complete

           Name : ServerOne:0  (local to host ServerOne)
           UUID : d635095e:50457059:7e6ccdaf:7da91c9b
         Events : 18244

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       0       8       16        0      active sync   /dev/sdb
       6       8       32        1      active sync   /dev/sdc
       5       8       48        2      spare rebuilding   /dev/sdd
       4       8        0        3      active sync   /dev/sda
Tag(s): mdadm, raid5

Sunday, 07 July 2019

sRGB↔XYZ conversion

In an earlier post, I’ve shown how to calculate an sRGB↔XYZ conversion matrix. It’s only natural to follow up with a code for converting between sRGB and XYZ colour spaces. While the matrix is a significant portion of the algorithm, there is one more step necessary: gamma correction.

What is gamma correction?

Human perception of light’s brightness approximates a power function of its intensity. This can be expressed as \(P = S^\alpha\) where \(P\) is the perceived brightness and \(S\) is linear intensity. \(\alpha\) has been experimentally measure to be less than one which means that people are more sensitive to changes to dark colours rather than to bright ones.

Based on that observation, colour space’s encoding can be made more efficient by using higher precision when encoding dark colours and lower when encoding bright ones. This is akin to precision of floating point numbers scaling with value’s magnitude. In RGB systems, the role of precision scaling is done by gamma correction. When colour is captured (for example from a digital camera) it goes through gamma compression which spaces dark colours apart and packs lighter colours more densely. When displaying an image, the opposite happens and encoded value goes through gamma expansion.1.00.90.80.70.60.50.40.30.20.10.0EncodedIntensity

Many RGB systems use a simple \(S = E^\gamma\) expansion formula, where \(E\) is the encoded (or non-linear) value. With decoding \(\gamma\) approximating \(1/\alpha\), equal steps in encoding space correspond roughly to equal steps in perceived brightness. Image on the right demonstrates this by comparing two colour gradients. The first one has been generated by increasing encoded value in equal steps and the second one has been created by doing the same to light intensity. The former includes many dark colours while the latter contains a sudden jump in brightness from black to the next colour.

sRGB uses slightly more complicated formula stitching together two functions: $$ \begin{align} E &= \begin{cases} 12.92 × S & \text{if } S ≤ S_0 \\ 1.055 × S^{1/2.4} - 0.055 & \text{otherwise} \end{cases} \\[0.5em] S &= \begin{cases} E / 12.92 & \text{if } E ≤ E_0 \\ ((E + 0.055) / 1.055)^{2.4} & \text{otherwise} \end{cases} \\[0.5em] S_0 &= 0.00313066844250060782371 \\ E_0 &= 12.92 × S_0 \\ &= 0.04044823627710785308233 \end{align} $$

The formulas assume values are normalised to [0, 1] range. This is not always how they are expressed so a scaling step might be necessary.

sRGB encoding

Most common sRGB encoding uses eight bits per channel which introduces a scaling step: \(E_8 = ⌊E × 255⌉\). In an actual implementation, to increase efficiency and accuracy of gamma operations, it’s best to fuse the multiplication into aforementioned formulas. With that arguably obvious optimisation, the equations become: $$ \begin{align} E_8 &= \begin{cases} ⌊3294.6 × S⌉ & \text{if } S ≤ S_0 \\ ⌊269.025 × S^{1/2.4} - 14.025⌉ & \text{otherwise} \end{cases} \\[0.5em] S &= \begin{cases} E_8 / 3294.6 & \text{if } E_8 ≤ 10 \\ ((E + 14.025) / 269.025)^{2.4} & \text{otherwise} \end{cases} \end{align} $$

This isn’t the only way to represent colours of course. For example, 10-bit colour depth changes the scaling factor to 1024; 16-bit high colour uses five bits for red and blue channels while five or six for green producing different scaling factors for different primaries; and HDTV caps the range to [16, 235]. Needless to say, correct formulas need to be chosen based on the standard in question.

The implementation

And that’s it. Encoding, gamma correction and the conversion matrix are all the necessary pieces to get the conversion implemented. To keep things interesting, let's this time write the code in TypeScript:

type Tripple = [number, number, number];
type Matrix = [Tripple, Tripple, Tripple];

/**
 * A conversion matrix from linear sRGB colour space with coordinates normalised
 * to [0, 1] range into an XYZ space.
 */
const xyzFromRgbMatrix: Matrix = [
	[0.4123865632529917,   0.35759149092062537, 0.18045049120356368],
	[0.21263682167732384,  0.7151829818412507,  0.07218019648142547],
	[0.019330620152483987, 0.11919716364020845, 0.9503725870054354]
];

/**
 * A conversion matrix from XYZ colour space to a linear sRGB space with
 * coordinates normalised to [0, 1] range.
 */
const rgbFromXyzMatrix: Matrix = [
	[ 3.2410032329763587,   -1.5373989694887855,  -0.4986158819963629],
	[-0.9692242522025166,    1.875929983695176,    0.041554226340084724],
	[ 0.055639419851975444, -0.20401120612390997,  1.0571489771875335]
];

/**
 * Performs an sRGB gamma expansion of an 8-bit value, i.e. an integer in [0,
 * 255] range, into a floating point value in [0, 1] range.
 */
function gammaExpansion(value255: number): number {
	return value255 <= 10
		? value255 / 3294.6
		: Math.pow((value255 + 14.025) / 269.025, 2.4);
}

/**
 * Performs an sRGB gamma compression of a floating point value in [0, 1] range
 * into an 8-bit value, i.e. an integer in [0, 255] range.
 */
function gammaCompression(linear: number): number {
	let nonLinear: number = linear <= 0.00313066844250060782371
		? 3294.6 * linear
		: (269.025 * Math.pow(linear, 5.0 / 12.0) - 14.025);
	return Math.round(nonLinear) | 0;
}

/**
 * Multiplies a 3✕3 matrix by a 3✕1 column matrix.  The result is another 3✕1
 * column matrix.  The column matrices are represented as single-dimensional
 * 3-element array.  The matrix is represented as a two-dimensional array of
 * rows.
 */
function matrixMultiplication3x3x1(matrix: Matrix, column: Tripple): Tripple {
	return matrix.map((row: Tripple) => (
		row[0] * column[0] + row[1] * column[1] + row[2] * column[2]
	)) as Tripple;
}

/**
 * Converts sRGB colour given as a triple of 8-bit integers into XYZ colour
 * space.
 */
function xyzFromRgb(rgb: Tripple): Tripple {
	return matrixMultiplication3x3x1(
		xyzFromRgbMatrix, rgb.map(gammaExpansion) as Tripple);
}

/**
 * Converts colour from XYZ space to sRGB colour represented as a triple of
 * 8-bit integers.
 */
function rgbFromXyz(xyz: Tripple): Tripple {
	return matrixMultiplication3x3x1(
		rgbFromXyzMatrix, xyz).map(gammaCompression) as Tripple;
}

Wednesday, 03 July 2019

Down the troubleshooting rabbit-hole

Hardware Details

HP ProLiant MicroServer
AMD Turion(tm) II Neo N54L Dual-Core Processor
Memory Size: 2 GB - DIMM Speed: 1333 MT/s
Maximum Capacity: 8 GB

Running 24×7 from 23/08/2010, so nine years!

N54L

 

Prologue

The above server started it’s life on CentOS 5 and ext3. Re-formatting to run CentOS 6.x with ext4 on 4 x 1TB OEM Hard Disks with mdadm raid-5. That provided 3 TB storage with Fault tolerance 1-drive failure. And believe me, I used that setup to zeroing broken disks or replacing faulty disks.

 

As we are reaching the end of CentOS 6.x and there is no official dist-upgrade path for CentOS, and still waiting for CentOS 8.x, I made decision to switch to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS. At that point this would be the 3rd official OS re-installation of this server. I chose ubuntu so that I can dist-upgrade from LTS to LTS.

 

This is a backup server, no need for huge RAM, but for a reliable system. On that storage I have 2m files that in retrospect are not very big. So with the re-installation I chose to use xfs instead of ext4 filesystem.

 

I am also running an internal snapshot mechanism to have delta for every day and that pushed the storage usage to 87% of the 3Tb. If you do the math, 2m is about 1.2Tb usage, we need a full initial backup, so 2.4Tb (80%) and then the daily (rotate) incremental backups are ~210Mb per day. That gave me space for five (5) daily snapshots aka a work-week.

To remove this impediment, I also replaced the disks with WD Red Pro 6TB 7200rpm disks, and use raid-1 instead of raid-5. Usage is now ~45%

 

Problem

Frozen System

From time to time, this very new, very clean, very reliable system froze to death!

When attached monitor & keyboard no output. Strange enough I can ping the network interfaces but I can not ssh to the server or even telnet (nc) to ssh port. Awkward! Okay - hardware cold reboot then.

As this system is remote … in random times, I need to ask from someone to cold-reboot this machine. Awkward again.

Kernel Panic

If that was not enough, this machine also has random kernel panics.

damn_disk.jpeg

 

Errors

Let’s start troubleshooting this system

# journalctl -p 3 -x

 

Important Errors

ERST: Failed to get Error Log Address Range.
APEI: Can not request [mem 0x7dfab650-0x7dfab6a3] for APEI BERT registers
ipmi_si dmi-ipmi-si.0: Could not set up I/O space

and more important Errors:

INFO: task kswapd0:40 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
INFO: task xfsaild/dm-0:761 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
INFO: task kworker/u9:2:3612 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
INFO: task kworker/1:0:5327 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
INFO: task rm:5901 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
INFO: task kworker/u9:1:5902 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
INFO: task kworker/0:0:5906 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
INFO: task kswapd0:40 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
INFO: task xfsaild/dm-0:761 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.
INFO: task kworker/u9:2:3612 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message.

 

First impressions ?

damn.jpeg

 

BootOptions

After a few (hours) of internet research the suggestion is to disable

  • ACPI stands for Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.
  • APIC stands for Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller.

This site is very helpful for ubuntu, although Red Hat still has a huge advanced on describing kernel options better than canonical.

Grub

# vim /etc/default/grub
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="noapic acpi=off"

then

# update-grub
Sourcing file `/etc/default/grub'
Sourcing file `/etc/default/grub.d/50-curtin-settings.cfg'
Generating grub configuration file ...
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-54-generic
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.15.0-54-generic
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-52-generic
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.15.0-52-generic
done

Verify

# grep noapic /boot/grub/grub.cfg | head -1

        linux   /boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-54-generic root=UUID=0c686739-e859-4da5-87a2-dfd5fcccde3d ro noapic acpi=off maybe-ubiquity

reboot and check again:

#  journalctl -p 3 -xb
-- Logs begin at Thu 2019-03-14 19:26:12 EET, end at Wed 2019-07-03 21:31:08 EEST. --
Jul 03 21:30:49 servertwo kernel: ipmi_si dmi-ipmi-si.0: Could not set up I/O space

okay !!!

 

ipmi_si

Unfortunately I could not find anything useful regarding

# dmesg | grep -i ipm
[   10.977914] ipmi message handler version 39.2
[   11.188484] ipmi device interface
[   11.203630] IPMI System Interface driver.
[   11.203662] ipmi_si dmi-ipmi-si.0: ipmi_platform: probing via SMBIOS
[   11.203665] ipmi_si: SMBIOS: mem 0x0 regsize 1 spacing 1 irq 0
[   11.203667] ipmi_si: Adding SMBIOS-specified kcs state machine
[   11.203729] ipmi_si: Trying SMBIOS-specified kcs state machine at mem address 0x0, slave address 0x20, irq 0
[   11.203732] ipmi_si dmi-ipmi-si.0: Could not set up I/O space

# ipmitool list
Could not open device at /dev/ipmi0 or /dev/ipmi/0 or /dev/ipmidev/0: No such file or directory

# lsmod | grep -i ipmi
ipmi_si                61440  0
ipmi_devintf           20480  0
ipmi_msghandler        53248  2 ipmi_devintf,ipmi_si

 

blocked for more than 120 seconds.

But let’s try to fix the timeout warnings:

INFO: task kswapd0:40 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
      Not tainted 4.15.0-54-generic #58-Ubuntu
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this message

if you search online the above message, most of the sites will suggest to tweak dirty pages for your system.

This is the most common response across different sites:

This is a know bug. By default Linux uses up to 40% of the available memory for file system caching. After this mark has been reached the file system flushes all outstanding data to disk causing all following IOs going synchronous. For flushing out this data to disk this there is a time limit of 120 seconds by default. In the case here the IO subsystem is not fast enough to flush the data withing 120 seconds. This especially happens on systems with a lot of memory.

Okay this may be the problem but we do not have a lot of memory, only 2GB RAM and 2GB Swap. But even then, our vm.dirty_ratio = 20 setting is 20% instead of 40%.

 

But I have the ability to cross-check ubuntu 18.04 with CentOS 6.10 to compare notes:

 

ubuntu 18.04

# uname -r
4.15.0-54-generic

# sysctl -a | egrep -i  'swap|dirty|raid'|sort
dev.raid.speed_limit_max = 200000
dev.raid.speed_limit_min = 1000
vm.dirty_background_bytes = 0
vm.dirty_background_ratio = 10
vm.dirty_bytes = 0
vm.dirty_expire_centisecs = 3000
vm.dirty_ratio = 20
vm.dirtytime_expire_seconds = 43200
vm.dirty_writeback_centisecs = 500
vm.swappiness = 60

 

CentOS 6.11

#  uname -r
2.6.32-754.15.3.el6.centos.plus.x86_64

# sysctl -a | egrep -i  'swap|dirty|raid'|sort
dev.raid.speed_limit_max = 200000
dev.raid.speed_limit_min = 1000
vm.dirty_background_bytes = 0
vm.dirty_background_ratio = 10
vm.dirty_bytes = 0
vm.dirty_expire_centisecs = 3000
vm.dirty_ratio = 20
vm.dirty_writeback_centisecs = 500
vm.swappiness = 60

 

Scheduler for Raid

This is the best online documentation on the
optimize raid

Comparing notes we see that both systems have the same settings, even when the kernel version is a lot different, 2.6.32 Vs 4.15.0 !!!

Researching on raid optimization there is a note of kernel scheduler.

 

Ubuntu 18.04

# for drive in {a..c}; do cat /sys/block/sd${drive}/queue/scheduler; done

noop deadline [cfq]
noop deadline [cfq]
noop deadline [cfq] 

 

CentOS 6.11

# for drive in {a..d}; do cat /sys/block/sd${drive}/queue/scheduler; done

noop anticipatory deadline [cfq]
noop anticipatory deadline [cfq]
noop anticipatory deadline [cfq]
noop anticipatory deadline [cfq] 

 

Anticipatory scheduling

CentOS supports Anticipatory scheduling on the hard disks but nowadays anticipatory scheduler is not supported in modern kernel versions.

That said, from the above output we can verify that both systems are running the default scheduler cfq.

Disks

Ubuntu 18.04

  • Western Digital Red Pro WDC WD6003FFBX-6
# for i in sd{b..c} ; do hdparm -Tt  /dev/$i; done

/dev/sdb:
 Timing cached reads:   2344 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1171.76 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 738 MB in  3.00 seconds = 245.81 MB/sec

/dev/sdc:
 Timing cached reads:   2264 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1131.40 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 774 MB in  3.00 seconds = 257.70 MB/sec

CentOS 6.11

  • Seagate ST1000DX001
/dev/sdb:
 Timing cached reads:   2490 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1244.86 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 536 MB in  3.01 seconds = 178.31 MB/sec

/dev/sdc:
 Timing cached reads:   2524 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1262.21 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 538 MB in  3.00 seconds = 179.15 MB/sec

/dev/sdd:
 Timing cached reads:   2452 MB in  2.00 seconds = 1226.15 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 546 MB in  3.01 seconds = 181.64 MB/sec

 

So what I am missing ?

My initial personal feeling was the low memory. But after running a manual rsync I’ve realized that:

cpu

was load average: 0.87, 0.46, 0.19

mem

was (on high load), when hit 40% of RAM, started to use swap.

KiB Mem :  2008464 total,    77528 free,   635900 used,  1295036 buff/cache
KiB Swap:  2097148 total,  2096624 free,      524 used.  1184220 avail Mem 

So I tweaked a bit the swapiness and reduce it from 60% to 40%

and run a local snapshot (that is a bit heavy on the disks) and doing an upgrade and trying to increase CPU load. Still everything is fine !

I will keep an eye on this story.

fantastic

 

Monday, 01 July 2019

Usability & Productivity Sprint 2019

I [partially, only 2 days out of the 7] attended the Usability & Productivity Sprint 2019 in Valencia two weekends ago.

I was very happy to meet quite some new developer blood, which is something we had been struggling a bit to get lately, so we're starting to get on the right track again :) And I can only imagine it'll get better and better due to the "Onboarding" goal :)

During the sprint we had an interesting discussion about how to get more people to know about usability, and the outcome is that probably we'll try to get some training to members of KDE to increase the knowledge of usability amongst us. Sounds like a good idea to me :)

On the more "what did *you* actually do" side:
* worked on fixing a crash i had on the touchpad kded, (already available on the latest released Plasma!)
* finished part of the implementation for Optional Content Group Links support in Okular (i started that 3 years ago and i was almost sure i had done all the work, but i clearly had not)
* Did some code reviews on existing okular phabricator merge requests (so sad i'm still behind though, we need more people reviewing there other than me)
* Together with Nicolas Fella worked on allowing extra fields from json files to be translated, we even documented it!
* Changed lots of applications released on KDE Applications to follow the KDE Applications versioning scheme, the "winner" was kmag, that had been stuck in version 1.0 for 15 years (and had more than 440 commits since then)
* Fixed a small issue with i18n in kanagram

I would like to thank SLIMBOOK for hosting us in their offices (and providing a shuttle from them to the hotel) and the KDE e.V. for sponsoring my attendance to the sprint, please donate to KDE if you think the work done at sprints is important.

Sunday, 30 June 2019

Dealing with Colors in lower Android versions

I’m currently working on a project which requires me to dynamically set the color of certain UI elements to random RGB values.

Unfortunately and surprisingly, handy methods for dealing with colors in Android are only available since API level 26 (Android O). Luckily though, the developer reference specifies, how colors are encoded internally in the Android operating system, so I was able to create a class with the most important color-related (for my use-case) methods which is able to function in lower Android versions as well.

Link to the gist

I hope I can save some of you from headaches by sharing the code. Feel free to reuse as you please đŸ™‚

Happy Hacking!

PS: Is there a way to create Github-like gists with Gitea?

Thursday, 27 June 2019

KDE Applications 19.08 Schedule finalized

It is available at the usual place https://community.kde.org/Schedules/Applications/19.08_Release_Schedule

Dependency freeze is two weeks (July 11) and Feature Freeze a week after that, make sure you start finishing your stuff!


P.S: Remember last day to apply for Akademy Travel Support is this Sunday 30 of June!

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